Property Rights Essays (Examples)

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Property Chapter 1 Deals With

Words: 2730 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54099729

The delivery of the deed and the warranties of title are all notions being presented in this chapter.

Chapter 11 discusses notions related to the title assurance, starting with the basic information pertaining to the recording system. The chapters introduces the basic, common law rule, which is that a grantee who was prior in time prevailed over one subsequent in time. The chapter continues by defining the several types of recording acts ("race" statutes, "notice" statutes, "race-notice" statues) and to the process of recordation, as well, as the effects of recordation and the requirements for this process.

The second part of this chapter refers to title registration. This is a process that is separate from the recording system and is currently used only in a couple of states. This type of approach does bring several potential issues, mainly claims of defects in conclusiveness. This is argued both with the defect…… [Read More]

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Property of Freedom in Property

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41583653

Interestingly, the connection between private property ownership and political freedom developed in a roundabout way. As property owners grew richer from their commercial endeavors, the state sought to reap benefits via property taxation and this in turn helped to empower the people and Parliament. Pipes draws further connections between the evolution of the commonwealth, the British Empire, and burgeoning rights and freedoms for property owners.

Chapter 4 addresses the history and evolution of property ownership in ussia. ussia's history is far different from that of England, especially with regards to property and its connection with individual rights and freedoms (or lack thereof, in the case of ussia). Pipes explains thoroughly the origin and impact of the patrimonial system in ussia, which established monarchs firmly as the property owners and precluded genuine private property ownership. Patrimony, ussian style, is clearly and simply defined as "the fusion of sovereignty and ownership," (p.…… [Read More]

References

Pipes, Richard. Property and Freedom. Vintage, 2000.
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Property Laws and Telecoms

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57690080

Global Intellectual Property Law

Discuss the impact of Global Intellectual Property Law upon the Telecom industry and upon businesses.

One of the most fundamental issues in today's society is intellectual property rights. These are basic trademarks which are used to protect the ideas and innovations of both individuals and firms. In the last several years, technology has made it easier for anyone to steal them with very little repercussions or enforcement. (Denton, 2011)

Evidence of this can been seen with observations from Denton (2011) who said, "Intellectual property rights provide the foundation upon which innovation is shared, creativity encouraged and consumer trust reinforced. But the digital world poses a new challenge -- how to manage the balance when the consumer is the creator, when the marginal cost of copying is zero, when enforcement of existing law is extremely difficult, and when 'free' access to information and content is considered by…… [Read More]

References

Denton, A. (2011). Intellectual Property Rights. ITW. Retrieved from:  http://www.itu.int/net/itunews/issues/2011/07/38.aspx 

Gokhale, A. (2004). Introduction to Telecommunications. Normal, IL: Illinois State University Press.

Zhao, M. (2005). Conducting R&D in Countries with Weak Intellectual Property Rights Protections. Management Science, 52 (8), 1185 -- 1199.
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Right to Use the Name

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16649736

There have been several arguments with reference to the social impact of the Intellectual Property, and it has been observed that the Intellectual property law has been responsible for the promotion of the competitive forces in such a manner that 'antitrust law does not address, and may do so based on evidence that would be insufficient in an antitrust context' (Brinson, 1994). It is indeed a difficult practice related to the 'forced sharing to attain optimal competition' (Brinson, 1994), and it appear to be unwarranted 'in most antitrust contexts, and it is clear indication of the absent clear proof of market harm' (Thomas, 2006), although it is expected to 'constitute improved and comprehensive Intellectual Property policy, even in the presence of ambiguous evidence' (Brinson, 1994). The anti-trust law and the intellectual property law is expected to minimize the cost of three different things, which include, false positives, as per which…… [Read More]

References

Inigo Igartua Arregui. Refusals to Deal Involving Intellectual Property Rights. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 34. Issue: 4. 2003. Georgetown University Law Center.

J. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Radcliffe. Intellectual Property Law Primer for Multimedia Developers. 1994. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 23.

Keith Eugene Maskus. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. Harvard University Press. 2003. pp. 176.

James B. Kobak. Intellectual Property Misuse: Licensing and Litigation. American Bar Association Publication. 2000. pp. 87.
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Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection The

Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14004763

Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection:

The right to carry handguns for law abiding citizens has been a continual social and political debate about the restriction or availability of firearms within the country. Actually, the right to carry handguns has developed to become one of the major controversial and intractable issues within the social and political environments in the nation. The main reason attributed to the development of this controversial issue is the constitutional provision regarding firearms and the government's responsibility to prevent criminal activities, maintaining order, and safeguarding citizens' well-being. The debate has been characterized by different reasons that have been raised by intellectuals, social activists, and advocates in support and opposition of the controversial issue.

Historical Overview:

The debate regarding the right to carry and keep firearms can be traced to the inception of the gun culture, which explained the affections of American's citizens in adopting and celebrating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arnold, Larry. "The History of Concealed Carry, 1976-2011." Texas Concealed Handgun Association. Texas Concealed Handgun Association, 25 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"THE FACTS: WHY RIGHT TO CARRY IS RIGHT FOR MISSOURI!" MOCCW - The Fight for Concealed Carry in Missouri. MOCCW.org, 9 May 2006. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"National Right to Carry Reciprocity Act of 2012" Introduced in U.S. Senate." USA Carry. USA Carry, 14 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"Right-To-Carry 2012." NRA-ILA: Insitute for Legislative Action. National Rifle Association of America. Institute for Legislative Action, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
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Right to Privacy Being a Citizen of

Words: 2461 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37760841

ight to Privacy

Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.

In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…… [Read More]

References

Cowan, J. (2010). Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 83(10), 28-32.

Davis, S. (2009). Is There A Right To Privacy? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. 90(4), 450-475.

De Bruin, B. (2010). The Liberal Value of Privacy. Law & Philosophy, 29(5), 505-534. doi:10.1007/s10982-010-9067-9.

Doyle, C., & Bagaric, M. (2005). The right to privacy: appealing, but flawed. The International Journal of Human Rights. 9(1), 3-36.
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Rights of Accused One of the Most

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25034663

ights of Accused

One of the most significant legal principles that originated from the English Law and is cherished by conservatives is the due process clause. Actually, the Due Process Clauses can be regarded as among the most essential and controversial provisions entrenched in the American Constitution. The due process provisions were entrenched in the constitution as a means of ensuring that the rights of innocent people are protected against abuses from the federal government. In addition to protecting innocent people from wrong conviction, the due process clauses also provides a balance of disparity in resources between federal and state governments, and the common accused individual.

Origin of the Due Process:

The origin of due process of law can be traced back to 1355 when the phrase developed as a restatement of the 1215 Magna Carta (Johnson, n.d.). During this period, the due process of law was used for the…… [Read More]

References:

Carey, G.W. (2011, October 5). Due Process. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles.aspx?article=867&loc=r

"Due Process -- Rights of the Accused." (n.d.). The Lawternative -- Your Alternative to High-priced Lawyers. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.thelawternative.com/index.php/law-library/criminal-dui-law/due-process-rights-of-the-accused

Johnson, B.D. (n.d.). Due Process of Law. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from  http://www.jurlandia.org/dueprocess.htm
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Rights of the Accused the Due Process

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99595167

ights of the Accused

The Due Process Clause is considered as one of the most important legal principles and controversial provisions in the U.S. Constitution. While the emergence of due process can be traced from the English common law tradition, the long and twisting history of due process usually leaves scholars puzzled and students confused. The controversy surrounding due process is mainly attributed to the Supreme Court's use of the clause in the Fourth Amendment for many of the Bill of ights provisions to states through the incorporation process. During the colonial years and period towards the adoption of the Constitution, the meaning of due process was basically stated on the basis of notification and fair hearing. As a result, the due process clauses in the state organic laws were understood to relate to process instead of matters of substance. Currently, despite of these controversies, due process is mainly used…… [Read More]

References:

Carey, G.W. (2011, October 5). Due Process. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles.aspx?article=867&theme=home&loc=b

"Chapter 8 -- Rights of the Accused." (n.d.). Rights of the People. Retrieved from InfoUSA

U.S. Department of State website: http://infousa.state.gov/government/overview/accused.html

"Due Process." (n.d.). Lectric Law Library. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from  http://www.lectlaw.com/def/d080.htm
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Right to the City Social

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13066915



The ability of the state to hem in the free use of public space is clearly seen in the limitation of the Free Speech movement in Berkeley, California. Students at the state university were outraged by the limitations placed upon the campus by the administration, such as prohibiting non-students from disseminating materials and the prohibition on distributing political leaflets on the Bancroft-Telegraph sidewalk, traditionally an area of political protest (Mitchell 90). The university invoked its right, in loco parentis to supervise free expression. Students and administrators were at war as to whether the university was a totally free public space, or a space subject to regulation -- this division would later be waged over the People's Park, an area designated for university expansion. The war between the university and state authorities that ensued turned the park into a generational or ideological battle, articulated and mapped on the space. Who owned…… [Read More]

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Right to Die Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning the Withdrawal Withholding of Treatment

Words: 2116 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90932592

Right to Die

For the last few decades, the issue of a person's right to choose the time and method of his or her own death has been one of passionate debate in the United States, with emotions running high on both sides of the controversy as the meanings of liberty and freedom of choice, the morality of taking one's own life, the ethics of people involved in such actions, and the laws related to this issue take center stage in the arguments.

Since civilization began, suicide has existed in one form or another, with varying degrees of acceptance, such as the ancient Greeks who held tribunals for elderly people who requested to die, and if approved, were given hemlock and during the first century B.C. actually held annual banquets where the elderly were allowed to attend and drink poison if they felt they had lived long enough.

Moreover, "traditional…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).
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Rights for U S Citizens to

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68204912



Pluses:

High level of privatization as most companies offering health care insurance are private

The U.S. health care system is the most expensive in the world, meaning that the country spends most money on the health of its people; this is true in cases of both expenditure per capita as well as percentage from the gross domestic product (The Division of Lifelong Learning at the University of Maine)

Minuses:

47 million citizens in the United States are currently uninsured and their number is continuously growing; 8.7 million of the completely uninsured are children

The current legislation allows organizations to move the cost of health care to the employees, who unfortunately cannot afford these expenditures

More than 40 million people relay on the public Medicare support, but the Bush administration commenced a process of privatization of Medicare (AFL-CIO, 2009)

International comparison -- in a study conducted on the 14 most developed…… [Read More]

References:

Peikoff, L., Health Care Is Not A Right, Beckemeyer Development History, http://www.bdt.com/pages/Peikoff.html last accessed on December 3, 2009

2009, What's Wrong with America's Health Care, AFL-CIO, http://www.aflcio.org/issues/health care/whatswrong / last accessed on December 3, 2009

The Obama Plan, Organizing for America, The Official Barack Obama Website, http://www.barackobama.com/issues/health care / last accessed on December 3, 2009

The U.S. Health Care System -- Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The Division of Lifelong Learning at the University of Maine, http://dll.umaine.edu/ble/U.S.%20HCweb.pdf last accessed on December 3, 2009
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Pharmaceutical Property Intellectual and Tangible

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91581876

New communication technologies require stricter scrutiny, as well. The threat of reprisal is the most effective measure against intellectual property right infringements, and for this reason one of the most essential actions that can be taken in this regard -- and frequently is -- is the filing of civil and criminal charges against companies that infringe upon these rights in an aggressive and uncompromising manner (Long 2000). This not only limits damages, but dissuades future infringement.

Protecting Other Firms

efraining from infringing on another company's tangible and intellectual property rights might be seem to be a simple task, but it does require that certain actions are taken by pharmaceutical company managers. First and foremost, knowledge of the property right laws in effect must be obtained and thoroughly understood in order to refrain from infringing upon them. With this knowledge in place, managers can ensure that any similarities that develop between…… [Read More]

References

Ghauri, P. & Rao, P. (2008). "Intellectual property, pharmaceutical MNEs and the developing world." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W5M-4SY6YJR-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1171065541&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e667e8f8848aae7fd6fe1c222ed046d6

GTN. (2004). "Intellectual property summary." Accessed 17 January 2010.  http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidtrade/issues/ipr.html 

Kaufman, J. (2008). "Intellectual Property Rights and the Pharmaceutical Industry." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.america.gov/st/econ-english/2008/April/20080429230451myleen0.4181027.html

Long, C. (2000). "Intellectual property rights in emerging markets." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2011460/Intellectual-Property-Rights-in-Emerging-Markets
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Fichte Separate Right From Morality and Is

Words: 2058 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50370016

Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?

Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics

Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?

Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…… [Read More]

Reference

"Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics," forthcoming in Gunter Zoller (2007). The

Cambridge Companion to Fichte. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Marketing Product Safety and Intellectual Property Legal

Words: 2675 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46206825

Marketing

Product Safety, And Intellectual Property

Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual

Ethics and legal issues refer to the morals and principles that govern the behavior and conduct of individuals or organizations. These legal principles and ethics serve to guide and offer directions on how to act or respond when faced with moral dilemmas. Marketing, advertising and product safety are areas of importance to everyone in the community. Production, distribution and use of products or services are areas guided by the laws of the land. The laws function to protect the community from exploitation or mishandling by the participants in the above sectors. In the marketing and advertising framework, the concept of ethics deals with personal moral principles and values. Under this framework, the society understands that laws are values and standards that are enforceable in the court. In the production of goods and services, the…… [Read More]

References

Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal List, 36 (10), 669-674,681-684. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov > Journal List > PT > v. 36 (10); Oct 2011

Hurd, H.M. (1996). Deontology of Negligence, The. BUL Rev., 76, 249.

Carden, S. (2006). Virtue ethics: Dewey and Maclntyre. New York: Continuum International

publishing group
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Protection of Intellectual Property

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78965027

Protection of Intellectual Property

Intellectual property is any form of an idea that originates from a person or company and used to create innovative products, or services. Theft of these ideas by foreign entities to produce similar knock off goods has had a negative effect to both the owners of the idea and economy as a whole.

The United States Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) have taken a number of steps to fight against intellectual property theft. According to their websites, they both run complex investigations on cases that arise from theft of intellectual property. Since intellectual property includes copyright, patents, proprietary products, trade secrets and internet protocols, the two offices have contingencies that are there to resolve unique legal and investigative issues being raised by telecommunication technology. They also, according to their websites have the mandate to pursue local and international cases that relate…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, C and Walworth, D.J (March 2003). Protecting U.S. intellectual property rights and challenges to digital piracy. Office of industry working paper: U.S. international trade commission. Retrieved from http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/working_papers/wp_id_05.pdf

NW3C, (September, 2010). Intellectual property theft. National white collar crime center. Retrieved from  http://www.nw3c.org/docs/whitepapers/intellectual_property_theft_september_201008B6297ECEB4FAE7EAA79494.pdf?sfvrsn=3 

Qui D.L & Yu H, (2010). Does the protection of foreign intellectual property rights stimulate innovation in the U.S. Review of international economics, 18(5). Retrieved from  http://infojustice.org/download/gcongress/dii/Qui%20article.pdf 

Setec. Investigating intellectual property theft. www.Setecinvestigations.com. Retrieved from  http://www.setecinvestigations.com/resources/whitepapers/Investigating_Intellectual_Property_Theft.pdf
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Intellectual Rights Concept as it Affects Each Business Evolution Cycle

Words: 3002 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3879210

intellectual rights and how they apply to all aspects of the business cycle.

Intellectual ights and the Business Cycle

Intellectual rights are something that almost every business today has to deal with in some form or other. While the concept is a relatively new one, it has, nonetheless, become a concept that no business today can afford to ignore. Intellectual rights can affect every part of the business cycle, and a company that ignores this issue does so at its own peril. Businesses can be forced out of business or find themselves in complicated legal trouble over intellectual rights if they abuse the intellectual rights of others. Businesses can also find themselves mired down in lengthy court battles and in financial peril if they ignore their own intellectual rights. This paper examines the issue of intellectual rights as they apply to all aspects of the business cycle.

What are intellectual…… [Read More]

References

Business Cycle." (2003). Economics A-Z. Retrieved on October 25, 2003 at http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?

TERM=Business%20CYCLE.

Commission on Intellectual Property Rights." (n.d.). Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. Retrieved on October 25, 2003 at  http://www.iprcommission.org/ .

Copyright Basics." (2000). U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved on October 25, 2003 at http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html.
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Judiciary Review and Private Property

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79191952

Judicial eview for Private Property

The role that has been played by the judicial review when it comes to protecting the rights of private property was discussed by Daniel Cole in "Political Institutions, Judicial eview, and Private Property: A Comparative Institutional Analysis." The tension which exists between property rights and democracy was examined by Cole in his article. Cole starts by focusing on the concerns shown by Madison regarding the protection of individual property rights within a democratic society and how this democracy proves to be a challenge for many of the property rights' notions (Cole, 2007).

A tension has always been there between democracy and the ownership of private property however, in Cole's point-of-view this tension has increased with the rise of the welfare state which basically involved making use of the private property for the public use. The notion of regulatory taking was introduced by Holmes according to…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, T. And McChesney, F. (2003). Property Right: Cooperation, Conflict and Law. Princeton University Press.

Brill, S. (2010). Government for Sale: How Lobbyists Shaped the Financial Reform Bill. Cover Story of Times Magazine.

Cole, DH (2007). Political Institutions, Judicial Review, and Private Property: A Comparative Institutional Analysis. The University of Chicago: Supreme Court Economic Review.

Kelo et al. (2005a). Petitioners V. City Of New London, Connecticut. On Writ Of Certiorari To The Supreme Court Of Connecticut.
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Real Property Is Often Restricted

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62845853

(California EPA Land Use Regulations and Covenants NP) Without such covenants and restriction there is a clear sense that ignorance would drive selfish decisions about property use that could have lasting effects on the property and the whole region.

Thomas Jefferson, would have been unlikely to have experienced the extreme nature of environmental devastation that can be caused by overuse or poor use of land and property. In Jefferson's time questions regarding individual rights were the questions of the day. Questions regarding how toxic substances leech into groundwater was limited to urban human waste not complicated chemical agents. Additionally, there is a clear sense that individuals and agencies are far more informed today about environmental issues and their long-term impacts on the earth than ever before. This information and the abuse of it has broad implications on the earth as well as future planning and development. One example of the…… [Read More]

Glossary of Real Estate Abbreviations, Terms and Phrases,  http://www.texasbest.com/real_estate_info/REglossary.html#C 

California EPA Department of Toxic Substance Control LAND USE COVENANTS REGULATIONS,  http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/SiteCleanup/upload/SMBRP_FS_LUCREGS.pdf 

Property Law for Dummies, http://www.lucs.org/files/UECA.pdf
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Individuals and Their Rights by Tibor Machan Libertarianism

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30625784

Individuals and Their ights - a book by Tibor . Machan

Machan's view is that libertarianism has a "moral superiority" over other political theories and practices - and hence, that reflects one of the pressing needs for this book to be written.

The essence of the author's arguments in this book is that a comprehensive "moral defense" of the sometimes controversial tenets of libertarianism had not yet been presented - albeit this book was published in 1989, and subsequent to its appearance there have indeed been numerous academic justifications and explanations for the libertarian philosophy herein espoused. The author admits, in the Preface (p. xvi), that he had to choose between a) just "charging ahead" and presenting his arguments (ignoring critics), or b) the path of "looking often at criticisms" and giving readers key rebuttals to those attacks. He chose "b" - because he recognized, in an honest editorial position,…… [Read More]

Reference

Machan, Tibor R. Individuals and Their Rights. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.
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Proposition 207 Arizona Private Property

Words: 1498 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34984890

What this means is before the passage of 207 if the government suddenly decided that a rose was protected, and land had natural roses growing on it the land could not be sold or developed as the owners would be government ordered to set aside that land as a natural preserve.

The change that proposition 207 brought was that if a government action reduces the value of one's land then the government must pay the landowner for causing that to happen.

Another example of this is when a person owns a large piece of land and that land is currently zoned to allow 20 houses to be built on it. If the government decides that it does not want that dense of a population in the area, due to current traffic congestion or any other reason, then the government might decide to change the zoning to only allow three houses…… [Read More]

References

____(2006) EDITORIAL: Proposition 207 step to restoring property rights.

The Sun

____(2006) Impact of Prop. 207 Vexes City Officials: Land-Use Decisions Will Feel Effects of Voter-Passed Law. The Tribune

Meltzer, Erica (2006) Land rights at root of Prop. 207. AZ Daily Star
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Sabina Describe What Is Entailed in Property

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46481802

Sabina:

Describe what is entailed in property rights.

A property is a physical or tangible entity that has ownership. A property can be a piece of land, a home or any other physical space owned by a person or group of persons. There are public properties that are owned by the state or government. Private properties are owned by an individual or group of individuals. Property is usually defined by the law as a space for which title or ownership has been established.

Explain a legal description.

A legal description is a formal, legal, detailed report which describes all components of the property. The legal description holds descriptions of easements, property lines, and reservations about the location. Legal descriptions are upheld in court and are binding. They are used in legal documents such as property deeds. A legal description can be used to identify and locate a specific property.

List…… [Read More]

Fair market housing outlaws discrimination. Federal legislations in 1960's created the fair market housing. The fair market housing allows Americans to be able to live wherever they choose. Legislations such as Civil Rights Acts and Fair Market Housing Acts allows us to choose where we want to live without discrimination.

9. Describe the impact the real estate market has on the economy.

Many analysts believe that the real estate market is a major factor in the economy. The boom of the market in the early 2000's and then crash in 2007 has played a big role in the state of the economy. When real estate begins to climb, we will see a significant change in the economy. A positive real estate market reflects a healthy economy. The real estate market directly impacts the economy.
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Education Intellectual Property Almost Every

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40375965

Each institution must have an acceptable use policy for access to all systems including the Internet/World Wide Web. This policy must include provisions for:

protecting the confidentiality of students protecting intellectual property rights, licensing agreements and legal/ethical standards for sharing of resources with other educational entities upholding the integrity of systems, programs and information resources

The duties and responsibilities to carry out this policy are placed upon institutions, IT officials, and instructors (District Technology Plans: Essential Components and E-ate Plan Criteria, n.d.).

The Florida policies do a good job in making sure that each institution has a policy in regards to intellectual property. It deals with protecting the use rights of the systems that are being used in the course of distance learning along with student confidentiality. This is an advantage to both the institution and the individual student. What this policy does not address is how reasonable technological measures…… [Read More]

References

Bruwelheide, Janis H. (2010). TEACH Act Highlights and Resources. Retrieved January 26,

2010, from National Education Association Web site:

 http://www.nea.org/home/35377.htm 

District Technology Plans: Essential Components and E-Rate Plan Criteria. (n.d.). Retrieved
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Origin of Rights in Today's

Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58213525



In the 19th century, the idea and definition of rights was extended by calls for social and economic rights that came on the tail of rapid industrialization. This new era of rights was based upon the utilitarian idea of obtaining the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This included a discussion of property ownership, both private and common, and the ideas of public of rights and private responsibility (Nuncio).

By the 21st-century, the idea of rights has been transformed into a global political order based on constitutionalism and positive legalism. In a climate that supported the international will to maintain peace, the world's nations largely adopted a single agreement to ensure such rights. This agreement, the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted in December of 1948 (Nuncio). This Declaration included provisions for both rights of nations, and the rights of individuals (Human Rights eb; a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fagan, Andrew. Human Rights. in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, James Fieser, Ph.D., and Bradley Dowden, Ph.D., eds, 2004. 13 October 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hum-rts.htm

Human Rights Web. A Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/legal/undocs.html 

Human Rights Web. Short History of the Human Rights Movement, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/history.html 

Nuncio, Rhod V., Prof. An ESSAY on the POWER DISCOURSE of RIGHTS: The History, Politics and End of Human Rights. Diwatao, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2001. 13 October 2004. http://www.geocities.com/philodept/diwatao/rights_discourse.htm
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Social Capital and Intellectual Property

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43842071

The argument for intellectual property is rationalized by describing the process in which the product or commodity goes through. For example, a new song is the intellectual property of the individual or individuals who have created it. Record companies go through the expense of buying the rights to the new song, mass producing it, and marketing and advertising it so that the public will know about this new 'product' because of the value that they put to the creator's right to his product, which is an intellectual property.

The same argument is extended in the concept of social capital. Although social capital means the production of an idea or commodity for the society, it is vital to take note of the economy under which the commodity or idea is produced. Or specifically, it is important to know the intention of its creator as she or he produces that product or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rogerson, K. (2003). "Addressing the negative consequences of the information age." Information, Communication, & Society, Vol. 6, No. 1.
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Pharmaceutical Companies Intellectual Property and the Global AIDS Epidemic

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91128704

Pharmaceutical Companies, Intellectual Property, and the Global AIDS Epidemic

For this case study, six questions had been asked. The first one is: Should pharmaceutical companies distribute drugs at low cost in third world countries? What are the pros and cons of such an approach? The second one is: What are the principal arguments of pharma companies who oppose making exception to IP laws for developing countries? What are the arguments by NGOs and others for a differential treatment? The third question is: What impact would you expect South Africa's decision to levy duties on drug imports from Western nations to have on the international distribution of drugs to South Africa? The fourth question is: In June 2002, the WTO extended the transition period during which least-developed countries (LDCs) had to provide patent protection for pharmaceuticals. In your opinion, do you think this is an appropriate change in policy, or a…… [Read More]

References

Avert.org (a). Accessed online from: http://www.avert.org/prevent-hiv.htm

Avert.org (b). Accessed online from: http://www.avert.org/generic.htm

Avert.org. Accessed online from: http://www.avert.org/aidstarget.htm

Bate, R. And Tren, R. (2004). The Real Obstacles to Sound Treatment of AIDS in Poor Countries. Accessed online from: http://www.fightingmalaria.org/pdfs/treatment_obstacles.pdf
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Ethical and Legal Considerations Intellectual property and product'safety

Words: 1846 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60943371

Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.

Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…… [Read More]

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Women's Rights Cases for Gender

Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90558822

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,

2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li

erti+v.+York&lr=&ei=ub3YScLeEIqKNKT3vIAD&pgis=1

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
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Jefferson Views Towards State Rights and Secession

Words: 1971 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37794243

Jefferson Davis Views on State ights and Secession

Jefferson Finis Davis or more popularly known as "Jeff" Davis was born on June 3rd 1808 to the Kentucky couple Samuel and Jane Cook Davis. He passed away on December 6th, 1889 but not before he served as an American statesman and leader from the Confederacy throughout the American Civil War entire duration of the Civil War as well as the history that was made in that era. In his early life, he attended and graduated from the Transylvania University, and West Point which he followed up by fighting in the Mexican -- American War. He served as the colonel of one of the many volunteer forces fighting the war at the time. He followed that by serving the United States as the Secretary of War. He completed this tenure under the democratic governmental structure of President Franklin Pierce. He continued to…… [Read More]

References

Collins, Donald E. (2005). The Death and Resurrection of Jefferson Davis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Cooper, William J. (2000). Jefferson Davis, American. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Cooper, William J. (2008). Jefferson Davis and the Civil War Era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Peterson, Merrill D., ed. Thomas Jefferson: Writings. New York: The Library of America, 1984.
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Nozick's Entitlement Theory of Property

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34386909

NOZICK'S ENTITLEMENT THEOY

obert Nozick's Entitlement theory is mainly connected with the issue of property and transfer of property but it is essentially based on the issue of Justice and how it comes into question when property is being transferred or owned. Nozick believes that property rights need to be studied in the social context to understand how transfer and owning of property can give rise to the issue of justice within the society. He believes that when a property that was previously not owned by anyone is transferred to someone and an individual becomes the owner of that piece of land, it is the duty of the government to ensure that no one is left worse off due to this transaction. This is the Libertarian view of property rights and was previously raised by some important thinkers including Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. ousseau and Bentham also touched upon the…… [Read More]

References

Funnell, Warwick, Accounting for justice: Entitlement, want and the Irish Famine of 1845-7. Accounting Historians Journal; 12/1/2001;

G.A. Cohen, 'Nozick on Appropriation', New Left Review, no. 150, 1985

Levy, Neil, Self-ownership: defending Marx against Cohen.(Karl Marx and G.A. Cohen) Social Theory and Practice; 1/1/2002;

Paul Russell, 'Nozick, Need and Charity', Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol. 4 number 2, 1987, pp. 205-216.
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Threats to Copyright and Ownership of Intellectual Property

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41501997

Threats to Ownership and Copyright of Intellectual Property

The intellectual property (IP) is defined as an original creative work, which may be tangible or intangible form legally protected by law. (aman, 2004). The intellectual properties include the rights to scientific, artistic and literary works. Moreover, IP covers the invention of human endeavor, scientific discoveries, and industrial design. A current revolution of information technology has made IPs the greatest assets of assets. In the last few decades, there has been a rapid growth of digital discoveries where the IPs of the digital products are in electronic format. However, hackers have taken the advantages of the digital form of IP products by invading and stealing their IP in order to produce the counterfeited products and later sell them online. (Zucker, & Nathan, 2014). IP theft refers to an infringement of patents and copyright through counterfeiting of digital theft. Counterfeiting is an imitation…… [Read More]

Reference

Barker, D. M., (2005). Defining the Contours of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act: The Growing Body of Case Law Surrounding the DMCA, 20 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 47.

Guess, R., Hadley, J., Lovaas, S., & Levine, D.E. (2014). Protecting digital rights: Technical approaches. In Bosworth, et al. (Eds.), Computer Security Handbook (6th ed., pp. 42.1-42.23). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

IP Center (2011). Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad. National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center.

NIPRCC (2011). Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad .National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center.
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Ethics and Rights

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23258121

right, a legal right, a moral right, a human right. How are they related?

ights are privileges or entitlements to perform particular actions, or to be in particular state/situations; or privileges/entitlements to carry out certain actions or be in particular states. ights are the cornerstone of the modern comprehension of what actions are allowed or permissible and which institutions are fair and just. ights structure the content of laws, the form of governments, and shape morality as it is currently viewed (Wenar, 2005).

A legal right

Legal rights are rights which exist under the constitutions and laws of legal systems or by the virtue of decisions by the appropriate legal authorities (Campbell, 2001).

A human right

Human rights have been defined in many circles as essential moral guarantees that people and cultures in all countries apparently have for the simple reason that they are human beings. Thus human rights are…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, K. (2001, December 20). Legal Rights. Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/legal-rights/

CHAPTER THREE: The Market and Business (n.d.). Retrieved July 17, 2015 from www.institutobios.org/velazquezch3.doc

Morality. (n.d.). Retrieved July 17, 2015, from http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/morality.ht from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/right

Nickel, J.W. (1987). Making sense of human rights: Philosophical reflections on the universal declaration of human rights. Univ of California Press.
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Pharmaceutical Companies Intellectual Property and

Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4041602

As a result, this protection was removed to increase the supply and ensure that the public has access to affordable drugs. ("Pharmaceutical Companies," n.d., pp. 97-99)

Some of the negative implications of this decision are that there could be large amounts of generic drugs produced. This is because the various protections were removed to the point, that a number of players could begin manufacturing the medication. Over the course of time, this could destroy any kind of financial incentive in these areas. Once this occurs, it means that any kind of profit motives for these firms to sell drugs in these areas will decrease. This is when the available supply could decline, because there is too much competition. ("Pharmaceutical Companies," n.d., pp. 97-99)

At the same time, the quality of products could be inferior. This is because many firms will have select procedures in place to ensure that everyone is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Global Report. (2009). UNAIDS. Retrieved from:  http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_full_en.pdf 

Pharmaceutical Companies. (n.d.)., 94 -- 103.

Hunter, S. (2003). Black Death. New York, NY: McMillian

Poku, N. (2005). AIDS in Africa. Cambridge: Poulty.
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digital rights management ethical dilemmas

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29468274

Search Engines and Online Libraries

Content Creators

There are several people who might fall into the class of people who create intellectual property. First, there are creatives, for example writers, visual artists, or even project managers such as directors or the team who write code for software. All of these are actively involved in the creative process. When they are doing as employees or contractors of a company, then typically the rights flow to the company, as the financier of the project. But someone creating on their own should have full right to distribute as they please, whether or not this involves active digital rights management. There are examples of star acts that have sought to exert greater control over their work, using digital distribution models to bypass record companies. This is an example of a content creator exerting their natural control over how they distribute and control their work…… [Read More]

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Person Steals the Property or Possession of

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4918118

person steals the property or possession of another, the action is considered both a criminal and moral offense that if caught, the corresponding penalties are meted out. The matter is easily provable because what was taken is a tangible entity that provides solid proof of the usurpation. The issue becomes contentious when what has been stolen is intangible especially if these are original ideas, thoughts, designs and concepts. This then comes under the purview of plagiarism, a well-known offense not only in the academic circles but in the milieus dealing with intellectual property rights and copyright. Plagiarism should be differentiated from copyright though wherein "copyright is an area of civil and criminal law that prevents a series of uses of a qualifying creative work [while] plagiarism is a primarily ethical issue that centers around the dishonesty of claiming another's work as your own (ailey, 2011)." Nonetheless, plagiarism at its plainest…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Bailey, J. (2011). The role of copyright in fighting plagiarism: Part 1 and 2. PlagiarismToday. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/07/05/role-of-copyright-fighting-plagiarism-part/

Hansen, B. (2003, September 19). Combating plagiarism. The CQ Researcher, 13(32): 773-796. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.cqpress.com/docs/Combating%20Plagiarism.pdf

Institute for Interactive Media and Learning. (2007, April 18). Why students plagiarise. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from  http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/assessment/plagiarism/why.html 

iParadigms, LLC. (2011). Plagiarism. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarism.org/
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Human Rights Social Rights and Civil or

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54522902

human rights, social rights, and civil or political rights. For each, provide a brief description of an issue from the news that exemplifies each type of right.

Current human rights issues

One supposed danger of an expansive definition of human rights is so-called 'rights inflation,' whereby an increasingly broad definition of human rights dilutes the original meaning of the word. Those who fear such 'rights inflation' stress how definitions of human rights "deal with extremely important goods, protections, and freedoms" (Nickel 2010). Examples of these include freedom from slavery, a fair trial, education, and freedom from genocide. However, arriving at a fixed definition of human rights has proven to be extremely challenging. Human rights tend to be based on international norms, and thus vary over time. But there is controversy even between nations as to what is a 'human right' -- hence the controversy when leaked documents revealed that "U.S.…… [Read More]

In general, "some civil and political rights can be restricted by public and private property rights, by restraining orders related to domestic violence, and by legal punishments" in contrast to human rights ( Nickel 2010). For example, in a state of emergency or war, certain political rights may be suspended. President Lincoln famously suspended the right to habeas corpus during the Civil War, and a nation might postpone an election during a time of civil unrest. However, a nation that consistently denies the political and civil rights of its citizens is unlikely to be a nation that is able to uphold human rights in a meaningful fashion, given the lack of accountability to which its leaders are held.

Social rights include matters such as "matters such as education, food, and employment" (Nickel 2010). Within the world's major Western democracies, it is these rights that are most controversial. This is seen most notably in the current American debate over healthcare. American is the only major industrialized nation that does not strive to provide complete coverage for all of its citizens nor does it view healthcare as a right. In fact, by some conservatives the right to 'opt out of healthcare' (and be driven into medical bankruptcy) is presented as a fundamental 'right.'

The growing disparity between the wealthiest and poorest members of society is also presented as a failure of American social justice and a violation of social rights, given the degree to
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Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights Regarding the Politics of the Amazon

Words: 2759 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99636182

Anthropology

Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon

In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.

Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.

Introduction

Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, S. (1993). Indigenous Views of Land and the Environment. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 188.

Davis, S. Partridge, W. (2002). Promoting the Development of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. Retrieved from the Internet at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf/28354584d9d97c29852567cc00780e2a/03f1bda268d0989d852567cc0077f60a?OpenDocument.

Fraser, Barbara. (October 26, 2001). Indigenous groups seek self-determination. Latin America Press.

Moran, E. (1993). Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations. Univ. Of Iowa Press.
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Thoreau and Locke Acknowledge the Right of

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59501068

Thoreau and Locke acknowledge the right of the people to renounce their allegiance to their government, what is the difference between their understandings of this right and what different conditions would warrant such an act?

When do citizens have the right to throw off the yoke of a sovereign and adopt a new form of governance that is more in keeping with the wishes and their needs of the majority of the populace? During the age of the Enlightenment in Great Britain, the philosopher John Locke wrote in his "Second Treatise of Governance," that all governments of the world must protect the life, liberty, and property rights of the common citizens. Locke wrote that if a government fails to honor this function, then its citizens had the right to revolt against the government, as the social contract between the governed and the government was not being honored. For example, if…… [Read More]

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Rights Accused 1 Fully Defined Due Process Origins

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85168951

ights Accused 1.Fully defined due process origins, Completed 90-100% accuracy, 2.Fully explained due process protects accused abuses federal government. Complete 90-100% accuracy, thoroughness, logic, Used (3) reference directed.

Due process was one of the first rights that were created in the U.S. constitution. The history of due process comes from the year 1355 when the phrase was coined at the time when there was the first government. The Great Charter of the Liberties of England statute stated that no man would be imprisoned or prevented from enjoying their freedom or liberty or be outlawed or exiled unless by lawful judgment that is passed or by the law of the land. Several years later in the 28th year of the reign of King Edward III, it became a declaration that no man was allowed to be deprived of their property, be imprisoned, disinherited or killed without being charged by the due…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, N.J., & Ramen, C. (2011). Understanding the Rights of the Accused. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group.

Israel, J.H., Kamisar, Y., & LaFave, W.R. (2003). Criminal Procedure and the Constitution: Leading Supreme Court Cases and Introductory Text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

Nicholaidis, N. (1989). Sixth Amendment Right to a Speedy and Public Trial. American Criminal Law Review, 26(4), 1489-1505.
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Rights of Individuals

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16288381

Protecting Liberty

Individual rights

Bill of ights defines the protections afforded individual citizens under the Constitution against excessive government intrusions into private lives and arbitrary prosecutions. These rights are contained in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Since these Amendments were first adopted by the ratifying states the courts have interpreted the intent of each and created rules that attempt to keep the government from running roughshod over these rights. In 1944, the Federal ules of Criminal Procedures were generated by the Supreme Court and Congress turned them into law (LII, 2010).

One of the most important rights is to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures under the Fourth Amendment (LII, 2010). A warrant issued by a magistrate or judge is typically required before a police officer can enter a private citizen's residence or other property and conduct a search. In addition, the focus…… [Read More]

References

ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). (2002, Mar. 4). The Bill of Rights: A brief history. ACLU.org. Retrieved 17 Sep. 2013 from http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice_prisoners-rights_drug-law-reform_immigrants-rights/bill-rights-brief-history.

Bilz, Kenworthy. (2012). Dirty hands or deterrence? An experimental examination of the exclusionary rule. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 9(1), 149-171.

LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010). Criminal procedure. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 17 Sep. 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/criminal_procedure.

Wilson, Melanie D. (2010). An exclusionary rule for police lies. American Criminal Law Review, 47(1), 1-55.
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Rights of Children

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56813296

Child Rights

Children's Rights

hat are the main debates on equality on the MDGs post 2015, and how is this important for the children's well-being?

There are many debatable items and priorities that are associated the ongoing efforts in the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. One of the main priorities is to eradicate poverty. This is no easy task and has been a goal for the group since its origin. However, this issue is important to children in many ways. One particular way to help eradicate poverty is through education; especially the education of young females.

One of the reasons education is especially important for young women is that education is linked to the age at which women marry and have children. In sub-Saharan Africa and in South and est Asia, child marriage affects one in eight girls; one in seven gives birth by the age of 17; education can empower…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rose, P. "The Great Debate." 25 September 2013. Reuters. Online. 30 March 2014.

UNICEF. "The Changing State of Global Poverty." July 2011. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.

United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the Child." 2 September 1990. United Nations Human Rights. Online. 31 March 2014.
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Right to Rule Karl Marx

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84836961



Comparing Madison's ideas against Karl Marx's proposition of a new form of government (or aptly, a new social order) through Communism, salient differences emerge that highlight how Madison's democracy and Marx's Communism can be found in the opposite poles on the spectrum that is the political school of thoughts. Marx's The Communist Manifesto reflected human history's transition from a traditional to a capitalist society, and eventually, to a Communist society. This transition was a result of a history-long struggle of the "oppressed," who Marx referred to as the "proletariat," the social class that will eventually elevate the status quo of society from an oppressive to an egalitarian one -- that is, through Communism. Marx argues that transitions throughout history prior to the establishment of a Communist societydid not offer any the "class antagonisms" that existed in society:

The history of all past society has consisted in the development of class…… [Read More]

References

Fukuyama, F. (2006). The End of History and the Last Man. NY: Free Press.

Madison, J. E-text of The Federalist No. 10. Available at:  http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm 

Marx, K and F. Engels. E-text of The Communist Manifesto. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm

Mostov, J. (1989). "Karl Marx as Democratic Theorist." Polity, Vol. 22, No. 2.
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Right to Counsel and the Death Penalty in Michigan

Words: 4461 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13682228

Death Penalty in Michigan

There are, at present, 38 states with the death penalty and 12 without (deathpenaltyinfo.org 2004). Michigan is one of the 12. From 1976, there have been 906 executions in the U.S.: 517 were white, 310 blacks; 57 hispanic; and 22, other races. More than 80% of these cases involved white victims, although only 50% of murder victims were white. Case studies on race showed that 96% had racial undertones, whereby 98% of the chief district attorneys were white and only 1% were black. Another study conducted in Philadelphia revealed that more blacks were given the death penalty than white and other races at 38%. Still another study conducted in North Carolina said that the death sentence went up by 3.5 times when the victims were white (deathpenaltyinfo.org). Records show that 37 states with the death penalty used lethal injection method in 739 executions, 151 by electrocution,…… [Read More]

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Employer and Employee Rights and Duties

Words: 2319 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70419304

ights of the employees and employers in the UAE

This paper is divided into two parts: art one highlights the responsibilities and rights of the employers working within the UAE; the second part highlights the rights of the employees, including expatriates, working within the UAE.

Employer ights and Duties

Prevalence of Arabic

In all sorts of records, contracts, files, statements and documents Arabic language will be used and its use will also be compulsory for the instructions and the circulars used in the organization by the employer to the employees and if in any case there is any sort of foreign language prevailing then Arabic shall prevail over all the other texts (Labor Law, 2001).

ATICLE (4) - Amounts payable

The amount paid to the employees or any of hidden beneficiaries under the law shall be based on the value of the movable and immovable property and items of the…… [Read More]

References

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2006). Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates. HRW, 18 (8).

Keane, D. And McGeehan, N. (2008). Enforcing Migrant Workers' Rights in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15, 81 -- 115.

Latham & Watkins (L&W) (2009). Employment Issues in the United Arab Emirates. Memorandum. New York's Code of Professional Responsibility.

Labor Law. (2001). Labour Law And Its Amendments. U.A.E. Labor Law Federal Law No. (8) of 1980.
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Marx and Rousseau on Property

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50509866

. . while defending these institutions themselves" (1034-1035). Peled further argues that Rousseau was not able to solve this paradox and it was one of the reasons why he became increasingly pessimistic about modernity. But Rousseau's attempts to reconcile the contradiction in his approach are worth looking at in details.

Although Rousseau abhorred inequality that rose out of private property, he did not hold any illusions about modernity. He believed that private property became an essential component of the modern bourgeois society and economic relations in the modern era could not be free from errors and corruption. So, Rousseau thought that the best solution to modern inequality was to allow private property in limited amounts and regulate it through the state that represents the common will. In a perfect society imagined by Rousseau, the state would honor the right to possess private property but at the same time would retain…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alvarez, Andres and Jimena Hurtado-Prieto. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx on the Critique of Economics. Some Insights from their Analysis of the Role of Money." Academic paper, Phare, Universite de Paris X -- Nanterre. Available at  http://rousseaustudies.free.fr/articleHURTADOALVAREZROUSSEAUMARX.pdf 

Bozarth, David. "Rousseau Closer to Marx than to Locke." Academic paper, Sonoma State University (2004, June 15). Available at http://dbozarth.com/Poli_Sci_Notes/Rousseau_Closer_To_Marx_Than_To_Locke.htm

Brenkert, George, G. "Freedom and private Property in Marx." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 8.2 (1979): 122-147. Available at  http://www.jstor.org/ 

Chattopadhyay, Paresh. "Marx's First Critique of Political Economy, 1844-1994." Economic and Political Weekly, 29.31 (1994, Jul. 30): 54-59. Available at