Psychodynamic Theory Essays (Examples)

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Personality Theory and Stereotyping Theory

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Outline Answer Paper #: 21655199


Personality and Stereotyping Theories

Taking a leadership or management role in the workplace is inherently challenging. This is because it falls upon leadership to manage a wide variance of personalities and needs. This is why it's important to develop a complete understanding of the various theories describing workplace behavior. In the case of this discussion, Personality Theory and Stereotyping Theory offer the opportunity for insight into management the specific workplace challenges of Anger Management and Conflict.

Of the topics selected, Personality Theory was selected for its versatility. According to Cherry (2008), this is a theoretical model in which a wide range of lenses can be used to understand individual motivations. Behavioral, psychodynamic, humanist and trait theories can all be used to understand individual personalities and to work within the scope of their respective needs. Cherry traces personality theory to models proposed by Erickson, Piaget, Freud and Skinner, all in…… [Read More]

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Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Words: 4613 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48469926

Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)

Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to…… [Read More]

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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]

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Psychotherapy Theories and Practice of Counseling and

Words: 3282 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46214304


Theories and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy

The cognitive behavioral and person-centered approaches regarding counseling and psychotherapy come from a much different developmental history and theoretical underpinnings. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a psychological approach that addresses problematic behaviors that occur from the recurrence of bad thoughts and has shown useful to treat anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders among others. However, there are also many psychotherapy practices that can integrated with the counseling strategies to provide a more comprehensive approach to treatment. This analysis will provide a theoretical background of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychotherapy. These foundations will be applied to the treatment of depression as well as try to pinpoint opportunities in which they could be used in conjunction.



The psychoanalytical approach began with Sigmund Freud's and his theories of human psychology. He identified three primary drivers of an individual's personality: the id, the ego…… [Read More]

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Social Cognitive Theory Sct Was

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 46555145

The individual component of personal identity is represented in the older, early acquired traits (Cerulo, 1997).

In a given time and social situation, certain components of personality are mobilized in action, while other components are temporarily subordinated. With a change in time and group situation, a shift of emotional integration occurs with a corresponding shift of integration into another social role; that is, other components of the self are moved into a dominant position in preparation for a particular type of social participation. This is the essence of the process of social adaptation. In this process, the individual may react to social pressure with compliance, protest, or withdrawal (Cerulo, 1997).

Being able to identify potential reactions in given situations is helpful both to the client and to the therapist. By understanding the learning process that occurs when an individual interacts with others and either adopts or rejects their behaviors, both…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories


Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…… [Read More]

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Personal Theory of Therapy

Words: 1899 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83171191

personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (Ramey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…… [Read More]

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parents'sexuality and the psychoanalysis or psychodynamic

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27707475

1. As people progress through the stages of psychosocial development, they may get fixated due to suppressed desires. As all desires is driven by libido, according to Freud, any fixation can become a sexual fixation. Thus, being fixated at the oral stage would theoretically predispose one to have some type of oral fetish. Abnormal sexual behavior can be traced to fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development.

Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory.…… [Read More]

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Personal Counseling Theory Traditional Counseling

Words: 5141 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42126625

Similar to Gestalt therapy, I also did not incorporate existentialist thinking into my theory.

However, similar to Jungian analytical psychology and Gestalt therapy, I view this type of therapy as very philosophical in its' nature and application. Therapy methods that are very philosophical in their application do not appeal to me because they do not seem to adequately address the "real-life" problems, and instead seek vague answers that can be subject to many different kinds of interpretation. Existential therapists seek to find whether the major questions of our existence can be answered. As a result of my disagreeance with this type of therapy, I have not modeled by theory after existential therapy.

Another reason why I have not modeled my theory on existentialism is because most often such theorists will claim a spiritual or religious basis for their optimism.

Hoffman (2004) states that the spiritual existential approach is not necessarily…… [Read More]

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Humanism Versus Existentialism Modern Psychological Theories

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86346949

Humanistic and Exestential Therapyies

Humanistic Existential Theories

Strengths and limitations of humanistic and existential theories

Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, there was an increasing emphasis on new theories of the human personality and on ways of treating psychological disorders that offered alternatives to conventional psychodynamic, Freudian theory and the deterministic behaviorism of Skinner. Both humanistic and existential theories offered an alternative perspective. "They are united by an emphasis on understanding human experience and a focus on the client rather than the symptom. Psychological problems (including substance abuse disorders) are viewed as the result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self-directed choices about how to live" (Brief interventions, 1999). In humanistic and existentialist thought, there is a unity of philosophical speculation about how to enable the client to live a meaningful life.

Humanistic theories of psychology stress the fundamentally 'good' nature of all human beings. All…… [Read More]

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Evaluation of Cognitive Behavior Theory

Words: 2016 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23174691

Persons in a Military Setting

Today's organizations are increasingly operating in a complex and rapidly changing environment that requires them to retain highly qualified employees as well as promote their well-being. While all organizations require effective human resource management practices, military organizations need these practices more because of their rapidly changing organizational environment. In essence, military organizations or settings are faced with the need to establish effective HR practices because retaining and enhancing the well-being of their members is crucial towards success in the rapidly changing environment (Dupre & Day, 2007, p.186). Given this need, military organizations continue to develop and utilize different approaches towards retaining valuable personnel and ensuring their well-being in the highly complex military setting. Even though these strategies have been relatively effective in achieving desired goals, they have been characterized by some shortcomings.

Based on cognitive behavior theory, persons in a military setting can be helped…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61738554

Personality Theories

Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.

Personality theories are broken down into two classes:

• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors

• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality

This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]

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Developmental Theories

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99069675

Developmental Theories

Limitations of Great Theories

The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)

Rejection of the free will

Lack of scientific support

Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory

Case studies were subjective

Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

Does not consider biology

The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches

The ecological validity of the experiments is low

There is subjective introspection

Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

It is misplaced to compare humans and animals

It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects

There is little free will

Dismisses meditational process

The Surprises from Harlow's experiments

Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Contextual Family Theory

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 95182353

Contextual Family Theory

Model Summary

Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology

Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.

All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.

Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.

Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.

Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.

Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).

Relational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile…… [Read More]

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Leadership Theory and Practice

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 67774886


Northouse (2013) recognizes that leadership is a broad concept that is difficult to define, and that definitions of leadership vary from situation to situation and culture to culture. There are different ways of conceptualizing leadership, such as the relationship between people in power and their followers; the transformational processes that occur within groups and organizations; and the skills that leaders possess to effect positive change. For the purposes of the text Leadership: Theory and Practice, Northouse (2013) defines leadership as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal," (p. 5). A broad definition like this one is effective for highlighting the various aspects of leadership.

The author evaluates the different types of power inherent in leadership roles. For example, referent power is derived from being able to relate to the leader, whereas legitimate power is derived from a title or position. Expert…… [Read More]

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Personality Testing and Its Main Aspects

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 19722144

Psychodynamic Theories


Main tenets of theory

Unique contributions


Conscious, pre-conscious,


Id, Ego, Superego; sexual energy as the basis or motive of human action

Applicable in child psychology, less so in adult psychology


Archetypes: anima/animus, shadow, self

Psychic energy, not sexual energy, is the basis of human action; the collective unconscious

Psychology descends into pseudo-philosophy


Survival and security are guiding forces of life

Individual psychology; the organism acts as a whole, there is no division

Time and amount of data needed about patient's background family in order to treat


Psychoanalytic social theory -- people battle anxiety by moving toward, against or away from others

Neurotics rely typically on one of these methods primarily; provided extensive analysis of neurotic behavior

Applications do not typically apply to the normal personality

Defense Mechanisms

Match the example with the appropriate defense mechanism.

ABC/123 Version X


Week 4 Review…… [Read More]

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Human Nature Allows a Person to Demonstrate

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34709070

Human nature allows a person to demonstrate the cognitive, social and emotional behaviors that enable him or her to function in society and satisfy biological, psychological and emotional needs. The drive to display such behaviors is inborn but is shaped through environmental forces. New behaviors are learned and unlearned through experience and instruction. Functional human beings are able to read the situation, identify their goals and select from a repertoire the most appropriate behaviors to satisfy their needs. Psychodynamic theory explores how the conflict between inner drives and social expectations determine human behavior. Redecision theory attempts to influence human behavior through an exploration of childhood experiences and identifying dysfunctional decisions to replace them with more productive and relevant ones. Finally, constructivist theory seeks to increase the individual's level of consciousness and personal responsibility to encourage functional behavior learning.


A number of theories…… [Read More]

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Individual 20th 21st Century Angelina Jolie Obtain

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88774119

individual 20th 21st century. (Angelina Jolie) Obtain faculty approval selection prior beginning

Analyzing Angelina

There are several different facets of Angelina Jolie's life that make for a quite compelling probe into her psychological development. Jolie, one of the most well-known and bankable female actresses of the 21st century, has endured a variety of issues pertaining to aspects of her emotional and moral development that can be traced back to relationships, events, and occurrences in a life that has been filled with notoriety ever since her birth. An analysis of the most eminent of these factors reveals that the actress's hereditary influences appear to have mitigated those of her environment -- although both spheres of influence are quite prominent and represented by the culmination of her experiences. The effects of Jolie's family -- and in particular her relationship with her parents and her mother who was primarily responsible for raising her…… [Read More]

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Developmental Psychology Case Study

Words: 2618 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37820346

Human Behavior Theories

Developmental psychology entails the changes that occur to human beings and their lives. Originally, it was concerned with children and infants: the field's expansion currently covers the entire life span of children. This field focuses on a range of topics such as psycho-physiological processes including motor skills. It also entails cognitive development involving areas such as moral understanding, language acquisition, problem solving, identity formation, emotional development, self-concept, and conceptual understanding. Developmental psychology examines the extent of development through the stage-like development vs. gradual accumulation of knowledge, and the extent to which children learn or born with innate mental structures. This report endeavors to describe the psychological, biological and socio-development of Isagani aged five years old in terms of developmental milestones and neurobiology. This study uses various theories to elucidate the degree in which a child meets expectation of normal development. It will analyze the socio-cultural and environmental…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud & Erik Erikson's

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52124257

Unlike Freud, Erikson believed that sexual impulses were not the only conflicts within the child's developing psyche: a desire for autonomy, for example, was equally important at most stages of development.

Freud's most famous contribution to the study of development is his theory of the Oedipus Complex, which suggests that after a period of polymorphous perversity, or the ability to be sexually stimulated by a number of undifferentiated means, the child begins to desire the mother as its first love object. In the case of a boy, he begins to despise and feel murderously towards his father as a rival for the mother's affection, while the young girl begins to resent the mother for making her 'incomplete' (without a penis) and tries to 'have' her father as a way of 'having' what she lacks. Eventually, the girl tries to resemble her mother to win her father -- and other males'…… [Read More]

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Munchausen's Syndrome Is There a

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16916711

1529). Linked to but separate from attachment theory, cognitive theories focus on identifying deficient or distorted cognitive structures and processes that may contribute to a disorder (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, the foregoing findings suggest that both attachment theory and cognitive theory could be used to help identify internal and external factors that may contribute to the development of Munchausen's syndrome.


Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.

Gomez, J. (1993). Psychological and psychiatric problems in men. London: Routledge.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: Routledge.

Jacoby, D.B. & Youngson, R.M. (2005). Encyclopedia of family health. New York: Marshall


Mash, E.J. & Barkley, R.A. (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Murray, J.B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Journal of Psychology, 131(3),…… [Read More]

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Leadership Is a Process That Helps in

Words: 3349 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26347063

Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.

Literature review

Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…… [Read More]

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Abnormal Psychology Is a Field in Psychology

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15792418

Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.

Origins of Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Psychology Comparison of Freud

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77576905

However, just like Maslow, Rogers is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Positive regard is self-esteem, self-worth, and a positive self-image which are achieved through experiencing the positive regard that others show us over our years of growing up; without this, we feel small and helpless. Under Roger's theory, this "small" and "helplessness" is exactly what John is feeling, most likely as a result of the manner in which he was treated growing up. He is feeling anxious and lacks self-discipline because he does not like himself personally, as he feels that he does not meet up to the standards set for him by others. Under Roger's theory, John's actions demonstrate that he does not have a positive image of himself, a result of low self-esteem inflicted on him over the years of receiving negative feedback while he was growing up.

Freud's theory is also a clinical theory,…… [Read More]

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Online Human Services Class People Counseling Career

Words: 2459 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26473822

online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.

Application of helping theories

Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.

The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means…… [Read More]

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Women Studies and Communications Women's

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30509408

Communication Studies

Key Concepts

Communication Studies examine the way human beings communicate with one another and how that communication reflects meaning. Thus, there are a number of key concepts which relate to the process of communication itself and how those concepts reflect a larger cultural structure or phenomenon. First, symbols are those elements which we use to describe particular objects and/or phenomenon. Meaning is the associated definition of the symbols we work with in our communicative strategies.

Intrapersonal communication refers to the thinking processes and internal communication that occurs within an individual. This is the opposite of interpersonal communication, which is the communication which takes place between individuals. Interpersonal communication can be both formal and informal, taking place within a wide variety of contexts (Fiske, 2012). Group communication is that which is being spread within particular members of a group. This type of communication reinforces cultural norms and differentiates members…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Techniques Person Cantered Therapy Carl Rogers

Words: 1843 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48542891

Therapeutic Techniques

Person cantered therapy (Carl Rogers) and stages of change, and Adlerian Therapy Birth order

Person cantered therapy (Carl Rogers) and stages of change

Carl Rogers is the founder of the person-centered therapy. This therapy concerns how people or children adapt to change as they grow and develop in their tender ages. According to Carl Rogers, therapy was supposed to be warmer, tender, and more optimistic than as proposed by the psychodynamic theory and psychologists. Carl Rogers is for the notion that a therapist is supposed to take positives of nature in which a child grows and develops gradually. It does not make sense to have therapy that will tend to alter the personalized growth and developed phases of the child. Carl Rogers strongly believes that therapists should be warm, understanding, and genuine in order to have any impact in their client's behavioral growth and development. Within the notion…… [Read More]

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Personal Counseling

Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17119225


Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory

Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.

The nature of people

People are diverse, not…… [Read More]

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Approaches to Family Counseling

Words: 2951 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54637451


Psychoanalytic Family Counseling

Psychoanalytic theory was the dominant psychological paradigm that influenced counseling and psychotherapy in the first part of the twentieth century (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998); however, it was replaced first by behaviorism and later by cognitively-oriented paradigms. Nonetheless, psychoanalytic thought has persisted into the twenty-first century and is enjoying a bit of a comeback beginning in the last part of the 1990's (Hall et al., 1998).

Of course Sigmund Freud originated the psychodynamic approach, but his work centered mostly on the individual (Hall et al., 1998). An early basis for the psychoanalytic family approach was the Psycho-Analytic Study of the Family by Flugel (1921). These early propositions by Flugel adhered closely to classical psychoanalytic theory, but attempted to understand family influences on desires of the child. Later Henry Dicks published results of his work with married couples in the 1940s examining the parallel representation of internal…… [Read More]

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Affliction Personality Profile Wade Whitehouse

Words: 2760 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86435155

In general, far more information about an individual than is available about Wade Whitehouse in Affliction is needed to form even a passably accurate description of their personality; typical inventories contain an average of over 200 individual items (Edwards & Abbott 1973). From what is shown in the film, however, it is clear that though Whitehouse exhibits aggressive behavior at several key points, it is not actually one of his primary personality traits.

Traits are usually measured by self-assessment of practices, beliefs, and attitudes, and though such self-reporting measures tend to be quite accurate as descriptive instruments, the lack of a solid theoretical basis to much of trait theories claims makes prediction of future behavior difficult (Smith 1999). In a way, this applies directly to Wade Whitehouse's situation; his behavior cannot really be predicted based on the simple observations of his personality traits. he has shown some tendency towards aggression,…… [Read More]

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Psychotherapy Is a Treatment in

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46422978

He prefers to assess in overall terms before analyzing mechanisms like defences and resistances. He held the view that it is not the parts that explain the meaning and importance of the whole, but the whole that explains the meaning and importance of the parts. This view is same as Jung's view on the totality of the psyche. Jung and Freud differ in the concept of reality. While Jung says that the reality of psyche is the only real; however, Freud says that there is a real external world called truth. Jung's method is to help the client to reach depths of his own psyche by means of his dreams, fantasies and imaginations. Once the depths are reached, the client will cure his problem by himself by the contact with the unconscious. Then, the role of a guide or psychotherapist is not at all required. (Kohut and Jung: A comparison…… [Read More]

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Terminology the Primary Concept Discussed in This

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13050544


The primary concept discussed in this particular scenario regarding Elizabeth and what has come to be her sexual frustration is an inability to orgasm. Within women, such an inability to do so is oftentimes referred to as frigidity. However, it is important to note that Elizabeth is able to achieve orgasm via masturbation, which involves clitoral stimulation. Therefore, the degree of frigidity she experiences is not of the primary variety, but of the secondary variety in which a woman has achieved orgasm before -- typically through clitoral stimulation -- yet has a persistence of being unable to achieve orgasm through conventional coitus.

Among psychological theorists on this subject that include the likes of Freud, Masters and Johnson, and Kinsey, the psychologist whose work is most associated with this phenomenon is Freud. He posited the notion that there was a relatively simple explanation for women such as Elizabeth who were…… [Read More]

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Human Behavior and the Social Environment

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10189363


Economic and social classes are artificial divisions of individuals and groups based on their incomes, lifestyles, and professions. Economic class stresses level of income, number and quality of material possessions, from houses to cars to electronic equipment. Social class is often a function of economic class but social class can also include the relative prestige of one's profession, unrelated to one's annual income. For example, a lawyer in the public defender's office might make less than a public sanitation worker but the lawyer is considered to be a member of a higher social class. In most modern societies, individuals are judged significantly based on economic and social class.

Likewise, individuals are judged based on their race and ethnicity. Race is an artificial construction that usually refers to physical features like skin color. Ethnicity and race are closely intertwined, but ethnicity usually incorporates cultural, historical, and nationalistic elements as well…… [Read More]

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Counseling Why Do You Think the Preventative

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3208412


Why do you think the preventative therapy approaches have not reduced the divorce rate?

There are several reasons for the overall ineffective nature of preventative therapies when attempting to decrease the divorce rate. Primarily there are the inherent biases that exist in a therapy session, such as hypothesis conformation bias where the interviewer may seek to elicit responses that confirm his or her hypothesis. There are also self-fulfilling prophecies that cause the client to alter thoughts or actions to align with the expectations of the interviewer. Many clients are also not as motivated as others and this may lead them to provide inaccurate or false responses. All of these issues may contribute to the therapy being less effective than it could be.

2.Describe one of the approaches to marriage/couple therapy discussed in chapter 8?

Integrative behavioral couple therapy consists of two separate phases: the evaluation/feedback stage and the active…… [Read More]

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Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Significant Psychologically

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34178090

Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Significant

psychologically insignificant, or something in between?

The phenomenon of dreaming during sleep has long been a topic of interest to those interested in understanding the human mind. On one hand, there may be reason to believe that dream content and visual imagery in dreams provide clues to the unconscious mind as famously postulated by the psychological theorist who introduced the psychodynamic approach to understanding human psychology. On the other hand, there may be equally good anecdotal evidence that dreaming in humans is not particularly significant, particularly since non-human animals also apparently dream. It may be that human dreams are psychologically significant, but any such conclusion would have to be established by further research distinguishing dream sleep from non-dream sleep in the same manner as previous studies distinguishing REM sleep from non-REM sleep.


Sleep is a phenomenon that appears to be universal among all…… [Read More]

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Conflict Management Case Studies Conflict

Words: 762 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 92621128

The stress is, therefore, it is directed to the wrong person, but in normal circumstances, it's never like that. This is a perfect example of hyper-stress caused by built up pressure at work and the expectation to deliver.

The situation can be resolved by taking stress relieving activities that include engaging oneself in regular exercises, engaging in good talks with friends, eating sensibly, having enough rest and accepting situations that one cannot change. These activities will greatly help out in relieving the stress that pile up causing the conflict between the persons. Yes, I have ever witnessed the situation between my uncle and wife, and it was resolved by visiting a marriage counselor who advised my uncle to take up gym classes so as to channel away the stress. It really worked out.

Conflict situation 3

The theory that best explains this situation is the System theory. In this case,…… [Read More]

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Ego and Psychology

Words: 1919 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25358435

Ego Psychology

Theorists of Ego Psychology:

Ego psychology comes under the neo-analytic theory. Neo-analytic theory recasts and broadens psychoanalytic theory by underplaying sexuality, and by underplaying the significance of the unconscious. Instead it highlights the role of the ego. There are some neo-analytic theorists who concentrate on the process of the ego, while some concentrate on how the ego relates with and is influenced by other individuals or society or culture. Freud thought that the main job of ego was to intervene among the id, superego and external realism. Ego psychologists vary from Freud by stating that: The ego is concerned in adjustment, i.e. that the aim of behavior is adjustment to the surroundings and that the ego is powerfully concerned; and that the ego prevails from birth. Based on Freud's early works, a number of famous ego psychologists have done their works, but with a better and diverse prominence…… [Read More]

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Founders and Important People Who

Words: 4886 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47202674

These persons do experience a very high level of anxiety coupled with low avoidance. Therefore they get preoccupied and do feel on a constant basis, a sense of unlovabililty along with that of unworthiness that is combined with an affirmative evaluation of others. The preoccupied style is usually formed whenever a primary care giver is inconsistent in their manner of parenting. This is marked with being loving while being responsive. This is however true only when they are able to manage but not in their response to the child's signals as pointed out by Cassidy (2000).

In adults

Several adults have been shown to be exhibiting this style and they are known to be in a constant quest to be accepted by others through the gaining of acceptance of other individuals in the community.

Fearful avoidant style

This is the last type of avoidance styles It comprises of highly negative…… [Read More]

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Couch Fiction A Graphic Novel

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31597715

The knowledge that if he were caught would 'release' him from the prison of middle-class respectability he inhabits is not just a Freudian notion but also symptomatic of an existential longing for meaning.

What signs of empathy did you see? Give at least 5 explicit examples.

Pat is a professional, trained therapist and part of her training includes the ability to show empathy or understanding of James' perspective. When James announces he is a thief she is not shocked: rather, she allows James to elaborate upon what he means. Pat is also tolerant rather than horrified by James' sexual fantasizing, given that she knows that transference and counter-transference is part of the therapeutic process. She also admits that she finds James attractive to herself.

Pat understands James' need to be trusted and the fact that he sometimes 'tests' her, such as when he does not have the money to pay…… [Read More]

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Murray L Cooper P J Wilson

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43223771

Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.

Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…… [Read More]

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Components Contemporary Nursing Knowledge The Article Include

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56065054

components contemporary nursing knowledge. The article include: • Concept triangulation • Metaparadigms • Philosophies • Conceptual models theory.

Nursing concept: The relational theory of nursing

According to the article "A theory of the relational work of nurses" by Daniela Terrizzi DeFrino from Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, because nursing has always been conceptualized as a 'caring' profession in a demeaning fashion, quite often some nurses are apt to deemphasize this aspect of their work. This is particularly true in the modern, time and cost-conscious healthcare environment, where the relational aspects of healthcare treatment are discounted. "The relational work exists but is, as a general rule, taken for granted as 'nice' and not valued as the skillful and effective process that it is. It is valued neither by nurses explicitly nor by management in general" (DeFrino 2010: 294). This article asks an important question: in the new world of healthcare,…… [Read More]

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Counseling and Psychotherapy

Words: 872 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2194585

Psychoanalytic therapy, also sometimes called insight-oriented therapy, centers around the manner in which unconscious processes are manifested within the individual's behavior. The overall goals of such therapy are to help the client become more self-aware and to understand the influence of past issues and attitudes upon their present behavior. This tends to allow the client to look inward in a more critical manner to look at unresolved issues and the symptoms those have (perhaps from past dysfunctional relationships, etc.) and how those tend to manifest in the present time with issues like substance abuse, abusive or negative behavior, or other ways that contribute to a repetitive negative pattern (Corey, 2009).

Situational Overview

John is a 33-year-old male. John has an MBA and has been working for Loadstar Bank for 5 years, and has been frustrated because he has not advanced his career at the level he wished. We have been…… [Read More]

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Psychology in the Year 2005 United States

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94081965


In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.

How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?

Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]

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Evolution of Abnormal Psychology From the 1800's

Words: 3015 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38376738

Evolution of Abnormal Psychology From the 1800's To The Present

The study and treatment of psychological dysfunction has evolved from early history until the present day. Prior to the 1800's, society believed deviant or abnormal behaviors were caused by supernatural forces or biological factors. Treatments for psychological problems prior to the 18th century included exorcisms and bloodletting. Early beliefs about the origins of emotional disturbances influenced public perceptions of mental illness and theories of abnormal psychology in the 19th century. Advances in medical science, and the use of scientific method influenced the research of theorists like Freud, and Pavlov and improved theoretical knowledge and treatments of mentally ill populations. Despite current mental health treatments and increased awareness of the etiology of psychological disturbance, people with mental disorders continue to experience difficulties including social stigma, hospitalization, homelessness, suicide, and incarceration (Barlow and Durand). A historical overview of the development of abnormal…… [Read More]

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Jungian Phenomenology and Police Training

Words: 23346 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8910797

and, so that brought in a whole new perspective. I had never realized the degree to which they were afraid of us and often feel as though - now the situation becomes very life threatening for them. Because often they don't know how to follow the protocol, how to properly respond to police officers. and, so it just supercharges the whole event."

The training] gave us an opportunity to ask questions and answers, but a lot of the questions and answers we were unable to ask before the training and that it was always: well, they do this or they do that and I know the community thinks well the officers do this and the officers do... so we had an opportunity to interact." think it's one of those things that's been welcomed. I hear nothing but positive things. There's a few little thing, little glitches, in any kind of…… [Read More]

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Interview Was Conducted With Mrs

Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 76165485

Her improvement as a now member of the American society and capacity to become integrated in this new society became her goal of life. Before proceeding to accomplish her goals, she told us that she had an evaluation of herself and decided that none of the fundamental values of herself as an individual had changed. She was still extremely intelligent, was still an excellent surgeon, even if she could not practice it at the current time (this did not change the intrinsic value of herself as a surgeon or as a physician, determined by her knowledge, not by her position in society) and had the capacity to activate all these latent qualities. She mobilized herself so as to reach all the objectives she had proposed for herself.

Once on the top of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Mrs. Ionescu found herself somewhere on the third level, needing both acceptance as an…… [Read More]

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psychoanalysis and the different types of research

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42310716

1. The basic structure of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory revolve around the idea that mental processes are automatically regulated by "the pleasure principle" and avoidance of pain. Why are these principles important to psychotherapy? Support your reasoning.

The tendency to avoid pain and seek pleasure is universal to humanity, noted Freud, who devised the term “the pleasure principle,” (“Pleasure Principle,” 2015). The pleasure principle became one of the central ideas and pivotal focal points of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory. The pleasure principle is an embedded function of the subconscious mind, suggesting that it is immutable and inevitable. However, the pleasure principle is driven primarily by the needs and desires of the id. The other two parts of the subconscious, in Freud’s model, can help regulate reactions to the pleasure principle. Those other two parts of the subconscious include the ego and superego. Together with the id, the ego and superego…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study Introduction to

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32592810

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study

Introduction to Cognitive Behavioral and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

In general, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is one form of the broader category of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). In principle, CBT provides a clinical psychotherapeutic approach that combines the most tested and proven aspects of Freudian psychotherapy or classic psychodynamic theory with behavior and cognitive therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). Under the CBT approach, psychodynamic concepts are applied to the types of clinical issues that clearly relate to psychodynamic roots and conflicts whereas behavioral and cognitive concepts are applied to help patients change the way that they perceive and process information and self-perceptions that play roles in their presenting problems. All forms of CBT emphasize retraining the patient to question fundamental assumptions and beliefs that are part of their underlying problems (Hoffman & Smits, 2008).

The REBT approach in particular is based…… [Read More]

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Mental Disorder and Suicide

Words: 2909 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85196364

Mental Disorder

Suicide- Mental Disorder

Beginning with a historical analysis of suicide, the psychopathology of suicide is analyzed. Empirical findings are also presented to address probable causes of suicide. This paper addresses the psychopathology of suicide starting with its historical backdrop. It additionally contemplates the probable reasons leading to this pathology founded on latest empirical results. Control of suicidal behaviors and ideation are addressed, along with prevention and treatment strategies. Finally, the religious and cultural purviews with respect to suicide are considered based upon current research in the field.

Globally, suicide is one of the major causes of death. As many as 36,000 commit suicide in the United States annually and estimates suggest that 1 million individuals commit suicide in the rest of the world. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) does not classify suicide as a mental disorder (DSM-IV-TR), practitioners recognize the correlation between psychological…… [Read More]

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Employees Training and Development Plan

Words: 2080 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50702300

Freud and Erikson Theory

Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory

This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…… [Read More]

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Group Prenatal Care for Breastfeeding Promotion

Words: 6030 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68699133

In order to promote adequate milk production, pacifiers and supplementary liquids should be avoided for the first six months. An oversupply of milk can make feedings difficult for the mother and infant, and this should be remedied promptly. Offering only one breast per feeding and lengthening the feeding time can help, as can reducing milk volume before feedings by hand expressing. Breast engorgement can occur within the first few days after birth and must be handled properly to prevent plugged ducts and mastitis (infection). Other problems that can occur include a fungal infection (thrush), infant refusing to breast feed (nursing strike), and unhealthy infants. Medical help should be sought if these problems do not resolve quickly.

Some women may feel uncomfortable breastfeeding in public, but government and medical organizations urge women to overcome this difficulty on behalf of the infant's and mother's health (Office on Women's Health 2010c). Purchasing loose…… [Read More]

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Treating ADHD in Children

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85852842

Jeremy's Psychological Disorder

Jeremy is an eight-year-old boy who is having problems both at school and at home. The parents at home or teachers in school cannot succeed in instructing him to do any specific thing. Furthermore, he loses his homework and shows other signs of disorderliness. In Jeremy's life, disorganization is part of him. It is evidently hard to take care or treat him. This is a sign of disease and uncomfortable living. From the symptoms identified, it is likely that he is suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). In this paper, Jeremy's case is discussed in relation to ADHD: possible ways of treatment using the four psychological schools of thought are also identified.

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

This disorder affects the psychological stability of individuals and alters the way they face the world and handle their lives. The disorder mainly affects children at their young age.…… [Read More]

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Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although

Words: 5050 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54799142

You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…… [Read More]

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Personal Analysis of the Professional

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64344392

Similarly, I have learned that counter-transference is also a risk within any relationship potentially prone to transference (Mitchell & Black, 2003). As a practical matter, I intend to maintain awareness of any tendencies on my part toward counter-transference by being aware of any tendency to think about clients in between sessions in any manner other than in direct connection to their clinical issues. At the first sign of any potential risk of counter-transference, I would consider discontinuing the relationship and referring the patient to a colleague.

What qualities do you have that will make you an effective psychologist?

I believe my most important personal quality that will make me an effective psychologist is empathy, because I genuinely care about other people. There is empirical evidence suggesting that this is, indeed, one of the most important qualities of good psychologists (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). I believe that I am conscientious and…… [Read More]

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Personality Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children

Words: 2146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89837821

Personality Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children

Child sexual assault is a wide spread problem in today's society that presents a severe risk to the victim's mental health, both during childhood and into adulthood. For many sexually abused children, the effects continue long after the abuse has ended.

Sexually abused children have been proven to develop a variety of personality characteristics, as the result of experiencing fear, hostility, guilt, shame, depression, low self-esteem, poor self-image, physical and sleep complaints, and sexual behavior disturbances, that will impact how their personalities develop (Lynch, 1978: 111-113).

For millions of children, sexual abuse is a painful reality. Sexually abused children often suffer from shame, humiliation, anger and sadness, which undoubtedly affect their personalities.

According to data obtained by the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, approximately 826,000 children were abused in 1999 (National Clearinghouse, 1999). Of these victims, 58.4% suffered from neglect, 21.3% suffered…… [Read More]

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Akeelah and the Bee a

Words: 3811 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36806285

The unconscious is the part of the thoughts of which an individual is not cognizant of. Freud stated the unconscious exposes the true emotions and opinions of the person (Robbins, 2006, p. 170). There are an assortment of psychoanalytic methods utilized to contact and comprehend the unconscious, alternating from approaches like hypnosis, dream analysis, and free association. Dreams help an individual navigate through the unconscious; according to Freud, they are the main means to the unconscious.

Dreams are generated from dormant and apparent content. Whereas dormant content is the fundamental significance of a dream that may not be recalled when a person awakens, evident content is the content a person does remember from awakening which can then be examined by a psychoanalytic psychologist. Tanya's dormant feelings of her late husband could have manifested in actions against her daughter. The same could be said of Akeelah. She could have forged her…… [Read More]

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Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 62023833

Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families

Description of the Case or Problem

As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. Researchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…… [Read More]

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Psychological Research of the 21st Century Human Memory

Words: 7275 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Only the Literature Review chapter Paper #: 3668581

Human Memory


This literature review upon human memory will cover a fairly wide spectrum of ideas regarding the subject. While there will be a number of connections among the divisions or categories of this literature review, there will certainly be several distinctions or differences among them. The psychological research a part of the review will span, roughly, the duration of the 21st century thus far, with a few sources of research having taken place in 1999, just before the turn of the century. The review will approach the selected body of psychological research on human memory by dividing the research loosely into the following sections: memory distortion, repressed memories, body memory, and the changes in perspective on memory with respect to appropriate psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment.

The section of the review that focuses upon memory distortion will identify that memory distortion does, in fact, occur. The research presented in that section…… [Read More]

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Silver Linings Playbook

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14863887

The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…… [Read More]

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Freud's Dora the Case of

Words: 3466 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21031583

The picture is indeed emerging here of Freud as a chauvinist, perhaps (in the opinion of this paper) suffering from some testosterone imbalance himself; and perhaps, as Mahony writes on page 33 of his journal article, Freud was projecting his "male-bound wishes and fantasies" when he imagined that at the moment Mr. K first accosted Dora and "pressed his erection against her" she then experienced "an analogous change" (Freud's quote) in her clitoris. That seems a huge stretch and even a wild fantasy, hardly becoming a man of such professional prestige. But Freud's fantasy goes further into the abyss of his apparent bias; he argues that the traumatic incident with the middle-aged Mr. K must have summoned up "a distinct feeling of excitement" in a "normal girl."

Indeed, Freud noted earlier that Dora's father had discovered wetness in her bed sheets, from time to time. And on page 119 of…… [Read More]