Psychodynamic Theory Essays (Examples)

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Counseling Prominent Factors Influencing Group and Individual

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71948087


Prominent factors influencing group and individual counseling

(#3) Which approaches to individual and group counseling are best for new group counselors?

Successful theoretical approaches vary between individual and group therapy. Nevertheless, there is overlap in the efficacy of certain approaches. For example, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has a strong success rate in both group and individual contexts (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Although it is true that CBT was originally implemented in an individual setting, there are specific reasons why it is adaptable to a group format. Specifically, CBT endeavors to alter the way in which people distinguish between internal and external reality, changing how one responds to their environment rather than addressing psychological insight (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Additionally, many CBT patients have anxiety disorders, and many patients find the group setting less intimidating than a private dynamic.

CBT is also particularly successful to either individual or group contexts…… [Read More]

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Dysfunctions and Their Therapies Dysfunctions and Remedies

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16972289

Dysfunctions and Their Therapies

Dysfunctions and Remedies involved

Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions

The Thought Focused Treatment System

The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…… [Read More]

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Human Behavior and Relationships in

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98407675

The roles that males and females may also vary -- although a woman biologically gives birth to a child, a man may assume more or less care for the child, depending upon the situation of a couple. A man who loses his job and has a wife who must support the family temporarily may care for his child, even though a biological explanation for human behavior might theorize that a man has less of a hormonal attachment to the child, and the species would benefit if males generated more children with a wider range of females.

The psychodynamic approach also examines the interaction between culture and biology but from a more personal perspective, given its origins in psychoanalysis. Freud asked the question of why human beings marry outside of their kinship group, even though the first object of affection for both men and women is the mother, specifically the mother's…… [Read More]

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Leadership in International Schools

Words: 29649 Length: 108 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20990082

Leadership Skills Impact International Education


Practical Circumstances of International schools


What is Effective Leadership for Today's Schools?

Challenges of Intercultural Communication

Challenges of Differing Cultural Values

Importance of the Team

Leadership Style


Current Leadership Research

Transformational Leadership


Contingency Theories


Wagner's "Buy-in" vs. Ownership

Understanding the Urgent Need for Change

Research confirms what teachers, students, parents and superintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit for educational improvement, and within the school the principal has a strong influence upon the nature of the school, the conditions under which students learn, and upon what and how much they learn. Despite this agreement about the central role of the principal, there is little research concerning the characteristics of principals associated with effective leadership and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]

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Nursing Concept Theoretical Background One of the

Words: 3582 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46011406

Nursing Concept

Theoretical Background

One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Views on Leadership Applied

Words: 3640 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78677468

Bill Gates is perhaps a good example in this sense: Microsoft during the early 70s was but a mixture of their programmers, but they selected Bill Gates to coordinate and organize their efforts because they saw him as the best prepared among them. This is also what named him chief software architect at Microsoft (besides the fact that he owned the company at that point) and he retained the respective function even after he was no longer CEO.

There are other particularities of leadership in the software development industry as well.

Because the work activity is based on the existence of development teams that generally incorporate developers, testers and writers and which are led by a team leader or project manager, there is a distinctive importance attributed to the project manager or team leader. His or her job is many folded, which means that he probably needs to have all…… [Read More]

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Criminals -- Born or Made Since the

Words: 2372 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42815491

Criminals -- Born or Made

Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…… [Read More]

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Eckensberger 2001- Discussion Questions Does

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 28108851

These communicative actions help form the basis of human society.

In fact, a major part of action psychology focuses on the tension between autonomy and heteronomy, which focuses on the social and cultural context of actions. Some action theorists attempt to resolve that tension by assuming that cultural rules are man-made, although the implied intentionality of those norms may be incomprehensible in modern times, because they have been passed down through ages, and may have developed in a different context, where actions were more likely to bring about different goals or consequences. It also looks at crowd behavior, which may seem like a sociological phenomenon, but can be explained as a group of individuals sharing the same goal, which can result in the wide-spread development of atypical group behavior, which becomes normative over time, such as Southern lynchings.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of…… [Read More]

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Boudon 2001 and Eskensberger 2001

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66240861

Their anticipated and desired results for their education, personal or practical, may vary widely in unpredictable ways. The attitudes towards educational processes may differ due to the greater and more diverse social and life experiences that color perceptions of classroom life, even more so than the raw educational materials used in the classroom. The teacher must balance addressing individual needs through conferences, personal contacts, and allowing for more independent research, yet also strive even harder to create a coherent class dynamic and unity between individuals with different schedules and belief structures. This may require greater management on a technical level as well as greater personal finesse than might be expected by an educator with experience only teaching undergraduates.

Eskensberger (2001) on the subject of "Action Theory" provides some interesting supporting evidence to address the difficulties posed by a mixed classroom of old and young learners, or adult learners of diverse…… [Read More]

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Antwone Fisher

Words: 2291 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89850191

The heart-rending autobiographical, Antwone Fisher, portrays Fisher’s (who is the movie’s scriptwriter) obsession for a family life, and spells of extreme melancholy and loneliness. The character of Antwone Fisher, an African-American sailor, is portrayed as volatile and uncontrollable. This nature makes way for compulsory psychiatric sessions with Dr. Davenport, after Fisher has a violent spell, leaving a peer bearing the brunt of his temper. Initially, Fisher doesn’t cooperate and remains silent for several weeks; the two clash. According to naval rules, three therapeutic sessions are imperative, beginning from when the client starts speaking. However, ultimately, the real reasons underlying Fisher’s anger issues surface: childhood abuse and the constant fear of abandonment. (Skomormj, 2003). The conversation initiated between client and therapist sheds light on the heart of Fisher’s problems. The tale commences with an ordinary day in navy workers’ life but ends leaving spectators heartbroken. The client’s tale may be counterpointed…… [Read More]

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Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Is a

Words: 2788 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92793860

Conceptualization of Psychological Distress

Psychology is a discipline of mental development and behavior. Psychology involves behavior examination, which determines how actions are related to the environment. Whereas psychology is frequently functional in the treatment and assessment of psychological problems, it can also be applied in solving and understanding problems. This study introduces the different factors, concepts, and themes used to understand and describe psychological disorders. Psychotherapy is a terminology that describes the practice used to treat psychological disorders and other mental distress. This study has fostered the understanding of psychotherapy and psychology by providing the appropriate terminologies and essential definitions on the same.

It is evident that psychological distress is an aspect that bedevils the society. Mental health practitioners and the entire society are expected to have an idea of dealing with the same. The conceptualization of psychological health is critical in deciphering the source of human suffering as elucidated…… [Read More]

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Organizational Culture and Sustained Competitive Advantage Organizational

Words: 26051 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 17631771

Organizational Culture and Sustained Competitive Advantage

Organizational culture is a defining feature of every organization. The unique culture that every organization displays has an affect on its ability to remain profitable. Culture can have either positive or negative affect on the ability of the organization to remain competitive. Much academic research up to this point has focused on theory and defining what is meant by culture and sustainable competitive advantage. This research expands theory by providing tools that can help companies manage organizational culture in such a way that it results in a greater competitive advantage. This research translates theory into practical applications that can be used by a number of organizations in various industries. The most important finding of this research is that companies can take measures to increase their competitive advantage by managing their organizational culture.

Organizational Culture and Sustained Competitive Advantage

Chapter 1: Introduction

Organizational culture is…… [Read More]

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Depression a Person With Depression Must Have

Words: 1207 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24866329


A person with depression must have at least five of nine symptoms in the DSM-IV-TR for two weeks. There are many theories of the causes of depression:

(1.) Psychoanalytic theories - internal conflicts and a low self-image leading to anger turned inward.

(2.) Behavioral theories - disruptions of normal reinforcement patterns brought on by stressors.

(3.) Cognitive theories - cognitive distortions and/or cognitive errors and a person's mistaken underlying assumptions.

(4.) Humanistic theories - a slavish concern with expectations and values from others leads away from genuineness and wholeness in the person.

(5.) Biopsychosocial models - psychological, biological, and social factors play a role in depression. An outgrowth is the diathesis -- stress model that asserts that depression occurs as a result of a preexisting vulnerability (diathesis) triggered by stressful life events. The diathesis can be biological, psychological, or both.

(6.) Biological models - an imbalance of neurotransmitters (serotonin,…… [Read More]

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Hildegard Peplau Introduction the Mere

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53114585

And if one can work through and delineate the antecedents and the if the group can see behavior as change-worthy, the process of effecting change can then be determined. She saw that the most consistent hope for progress, despite the most troubled situation, is the truly intellectual person who is educated lifelong and constantly involved in the problems and growth of the field. Hildegard Peplaus, first of all, that person and that is how she tried to shape the young ones entering her field. She did not share the aspirations of the fortunate who filled the ranks of the profession in her time. She, instead, saw that nursing and the medical professions as sharing common goals and services, but each with a different and separate health mission in addressing and meeting the health needs of the people. She never felt uncertainty in identifying with her profession and in her sturdy…… [Read More]

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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on Roger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]

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Winnicott Critical Evaluation of Donald

Words: 4113 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33959755

6-25). Winnicott's clinical experiences in this capacity eventually gave him the raw materials "from which he subsequently built his psychoanalytic theories" (Donald Woods Winnicott 1876-1971-2000).

Winnicott's Influences and Challenges

Winnicott's theories and method were far from unchallenged by his professional peers, however, including several renowned European child psychoanalysts who had first immigrated to London during the war years. Among his chief challengers, and major professional competitors of that period were the likes of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud:

child analyst Melanie Klein, moved to London in 1926 and soon had many followers: Winnicott had further analysis with one of them, Joan Riviere. The Kleinians' belief in the paramount importance, for psychic health, of the first year of a child's life, was shared by Winnicott. But this view diverged somewhat from that of Freud and his daughter Anna (herself a child analyst!) who both came to London in 1938, refugees from…… [Read More]

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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16183152

Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-Brown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

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Addiction and Cases Against Addiction

Words: 1879 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16083435

D., Sayers, and Pearson)

In addition to this myriad of theories purporting answers to addictions, the following two approaches are also used.

Environmental Approaches to preventing substance abuse, particularly with includes education, but primarily focuses on changing the environment(s) of the addicted individual.

A"The Behavioral Approach, especially with youth, reportedly proves effective in preventing substance abuse. (Addiction)

Better Understandings to attain a better understanding in the field of addiction, sociological research, as well as, a number of other disciplines in the social sciences could prove beneficial. Determining which one would be best, albeit, would be similar to asking an addict which drug or activity is best, in that in both cases, the answer would depend on the individual, the need, the circumstances, as well as, a number of other relevant components. What can be affirmatively answered, albeit, is that many in society currently concur that addiction constitutes: "a species…… [Read More]

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Personal Leadership Platform

Words: 1641 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25475201

Personal Leadership Platform

Henry Fayol, Mary Parker among other scholars in the field of management have described leadership as the act of getting thing done through others, this definition is consistent with the definition given by Carter et al. (2008, 3-4) who described leadership as the process of attaining organizational goals, of which these organizational goals are attained effectively and efficiently through the performance of certain tasks that includes planning, organizing staffing, directing and controlling. From a functional perspective leadership can be defined as the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling organizational resources and activities so that goals can be accomplished effectively and efficiently.

This research paper is based on leadership development from a personal perspective i.e. It aims at enlisting my strengths and weaknesses as a leader and the corrective measures I plan to undertake in order to become the future leader that I would admire.- Besides…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast Between Albert Ellis' Cognitive Therapy and Behavior Therapy

Words: 3990 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79010722

Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum")

A Critical Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Rational-Emotive Therapy

In this paper, I consider the benefits and drawbacks of behavior therapy and the cognitive therapy. These are talking therapies that now have over a half-century of application in clinical settings and are still used today in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, drug treatments of psychological disorders. I conclude that these therapies are still useful, though each has its limitations.

Behavior therapy (BT) and rational-emotive therapy (RET) were developed in the mid 20th century as alternative psychotherapies to Freudian psychoanalysis. A key foundational text for BT is Joseph Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Rational-emotive therapy (originally called simply "rational therapy") was founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (Ellis & Dryden 1987, p. 1). Ellis' RET incorporates aspects of learning theory, which is central to BT, but goes beyond BT to utilize the central concept…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy Dynamics by the

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57406059

Goals -- For Bion, groups have specific goals that are differentiated by the manner of dissonance individuals bring: drug dependency, sexual abuse, a fatal disease, etc. This coming together out of homogeneity with a clear and stated aim -- dealing with the issue. Each group may or may not be identical in make up; for instance, there can be commonalities within the group, but the goal is the same. Uncovering the barriers to good health in the individual. It is clear rehabilitation from the issue that harbors negativity or an inability to be complete that allows for group therapy to use the interplay of the individual for a synergistic goal (Bion, 2004, 26).

Yalom, as noted, came to realize that there was really no such thing as a cure for the issues that surround dissonance. There is no such thing as permant conflict removal because humans continue to evolve and…… [Read More]

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Self-Directed Search Assessment Booklet

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22144991

Self-Directed Assessment

Self-Assessment Research

Finding a career path that is both financial rewarding and personally satisfying can be a trying process. While many workers find positions that are either financial rewarding, or personally satisfying, ultimately the two goals are subtly linked. When a person settles for a career path that is financial rewarding, but exists outside the scope of their personal values or talents, the career can produce feelings of unhappiness in the individual, and lead to the 40-40-40 syndrome. A person works forty hours per week, for roughly 40 years, and tops out at a 40K per year salary. On the other hand, a person who finds the career he or she loves can spend a lifetime building personal accomplishments, which will quite often lead to expanded opportunity and expanded earning potential. Finding the ideal path for the career minded individual is a function of matching the person's desires…… [Read More]

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Health Psychology Stress Coping and Well-Being Psychological Disorders

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46098707

Psychological Disorders

Word Count (excluding subheadings and questions): 836

First Assignment

Option 1 - Perspectives on Psychological Disorder

Medical Perspective: Webpage:

The medical perspective on psychological disorders proposes that abnormal behavior can have a root physiological cause. Physiological causes of abnormal behavior include chemical imbalances or brain injuries. Changes in brain biochemistry can affect a mood and personality which can be seen as a symptom of mental disorder. Causes of brain chemistry changes include viruses, toxins, or brain injury. Brain tumors are a good example of a medical condition that may interrupt chemical production and neurotransmitters which could result in behavior that is out of the ordinary for a particular patient. The medical perspective is valid and useful as abnormal behavior can be diagnosed and treated through medical examination.

Sociocultural perspective: Webpage:

The sociocultural perspective emphasizes the effect that social context has on behavior and attitudes toward behavior.…… [Read More]

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Case Formulation

Words: 2380 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 8058673

Differential Diagnosis

The patient has been given a diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Since depressive symptoms are common in PTSD we would need to consider whether the depression or the PTSD is the primary diagnosis.

An essential step in the assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is to identify major traumas in the client's. We know that Sarah reports being raped at a young age, but we need to know more about the effects of these experiences. Structured Diagnostic Interviews and Self-Report Instruments have been developed with the purpose of assessing traumas in more detail (Barlow, 2008). Some of the difficulties in assessing PTSD aside from diagnosing it incorrectly when another diagnosis would be appropriate would include the unreliability of self-report data. Patients often exaggerate or over report symptoms in an effort to gain the alliance of an assessing physician or psychologist. Care should be…… [Read More]

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Nancy Is a Junior Majoring in Business

Words: 884 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22427721

Nancy is a junior majoring in business. During spring semester of her sophomore year, she began attending meetings of the local gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender student group, primarily because she was feeling lonely and wanted talk further about her sexual feelings. Since high school, she had been quite certain that she was a lesbian, but had been reluctant to come out or to talk with anyone else about it. She had dated boys in high school, thinking that maybe she would become more interested, but she did not. Since coming to college, she had avoided the social scene for the most part. At one of the meetings in the spring, she met a young woman from the community, and they talked alone a few times. They stayed in touch over the summer, and Nancy looked forward to pursuing the relationship when she returned in the fall. Nancy and Jill…… [Read More]

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Shore Case Study

Words: 4008 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 31359343

Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy

Diagnostic Statement for Nancy

Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.

DSM-IV-TR (2000) Diagnosis

The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:

(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder

296.xx Major Depressive Disorder

301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder

300.23…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37312645

Yalom Analysis

The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…… [Read More]

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Child Observation Report

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24349384

Psychological scientists are levying great stress on using naturalistic observations methods for gaining understanding of human behavior as it is fundamental for development of new theories and methods of treatments of psychological patients. The naturalistic observation is a type of study classified under the broader category of field studies; no experimental approaches used in the field or in real-life settings. In the naturalistic observation method the researcher very carefully observes and records some behavior or phenomenon, sometimes over a prolonged period, in its natural setting. Its simple application to real life makes it easier to be used by Psychologists and becomes a preferred option as compared to experimental studies.

Naturalistic observation can be preferred over other experimental methodologies applied in assessment of child's behavior mainly because of its advantages. This method of assessment allows the observer to perform assessment of the behavior exactly as it takes place in the reality.…… [Read More]

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Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623


Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. Relatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]

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Personality Analysis Through 2 Domains Perspectives of Knowledge Trait Preferably on Charlie Sheen

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59496934

Personality Psychology

A Personality Profile of Charlie Sheen


Charlie Sheen, born Carlos Irwin Estevez, is an American movie and television actor who has been acting for almost 30 years in some capacity (A & E. Networks, 2012). He is the son of Ramon Estevez (aka Martin Sheen) and Janet Templeton an artist. His early was typical of a youth growing up in California, but he quickly joined the family business. At the age of nine he had his first acting role with in his father's production of The Execution of Private Slovik (A & E. Networks, 2012). Sheen performed bit roles in many different productions as a child and teen, but his drive to be a star and his antics became apparent early in his life. He was expelled from Santa Monica High School just two weeks before he was supposed to graduate in 1983 because of his bad…… [Read More]

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Case Study on Mental Health

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 95643598

Mental Health

Presenting Problem

The patient is a 25-year-old male, single, unemployed, living with parents. The person seeking treatment in this case has been experiencing some extreme problems that have developed somewhat rapidly over the course of six months. The problem is very severe and has interfered with all of his personal relationships. He was recently fired from his janitorial job at a school for scaring the students with his words and actions. The patient has not sought treatment before but is now due to his parent's concern and him becoming much more violent and demonstrating strange and odd behavior. The patient claims to be hearing many voices in his head urging him to do strange acts. The patient has also recently taken up a hobby of collecting dead animals and placing them in mailboxes and other public places.

History of the Problem

The patient has described his life becoming…… [Read More]

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Unconscious Determinants of Personality

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58322961

Psychological Influences on Personality Development

Recognizing Various Unconscious Behavioral Determinants

Contemporary psychologists understand that myriad influences of variable origin contribute to the development of human personality. Some of those influences are more apparent than others and some operate on the conscious level whereas others operate on a completely unconscious level. Naturally, the latter present more complex potential issues simply because they are not known to the individual. That is especially true with regard to aspects of personality whose roots go back to infancy but that only become manifest in behavior only much later.

Different psychological theorists have provided conflicting explanations for the origin of major issues in human personality development. Freud, for example, regarded virtually all manifestations of psychological pathology as being the result of early trauma, sexual impulses, and the failure to successfully negotiate specific stages of infancy, such as the oral stage, anal stage, and the Oedipal stage.…… [Read More]

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Grapes of Wrath When John Steinbeck's the

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96628801

Grapes of Wrath

When John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was published on March 14, 1939, it created a national sensation by focusing on the devastating effects of the Great Depression. Beyond the setting, though, which is important in and of itself, The Grapes of Wrath is compelling in its focus on society, human nature, and the hierarchical vision of "class," in a supposedly classless society. The Grapes of Wrath focuses on the 1930s, where a combination of weather (Dust Bowl) and economic downturn (the 1929 Stock Market Crash and reverberations) caused millions of Americans to lose work, become displaced, and flee middle America towards the "promised land" of California. The central characters, the Joad family, are Steinbeck's camera into the lives of the poor and downtrodden, their hopes, dreams, aspirations, and failures -- and through the Joad experience, the reader is able to juxtapose the very nature of mankind…… [Read More]

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Mathematics Instruction

Words: 2026 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68478036

Mathematics Teaching

Learners Studying Basic Mathematics To Enable Helping Their Children With Their Education

The work of Jackson and Ginsburg (2008) reports on a series of algebra classes involving a group of African-American mother and elementary-aged children, who are low income and who "had limited and negative formal experiences with algebra." (p. 10) The women in the study who arrived to the algebra classes are reported to have had "well-informed view of what algebra was -- a disconnected body of knowledge that they did not understand -- and corresponding views of who could 'do' algebra." (Jackson and Ginsburg, 2008, p. 11) The study resulted in the women's views of who could 'do' algebra being changed "through genuine, intellectual inquiry into the mathematics of algebra." (Jackson and Ginsburg, 2008, p. 11) It is reported that questioning "is recognized as a critical instructional tool in the teaching of mathematics for understanding." (Jackson…… [Read More]

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Prior Learning Portfolio

Words: 1604 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3659201

learning experience. The writer demonstrates how to put together a prior learning and prior experience portfolio for the purpose of demonstrating current knowledge due to that prior experience.

A comprehensive look at the management of one's personal finances; covers budgeting, use of and cost of credit, life and property insurance, income and state taxation, housing, wills, trusts, estate planning, and savings and investments.

You must recall and write one or more "learning events" for each of the key terms listed on the course description you have obtained. By using Kolb's model to guide your storytelling, you will assist your faculty assessor, the person who will evaluate your PLA portfolio for credit, to locate and appreciate your learning outcomes.

In short, your task in writing your PLA portfolio essay is to address all listed course content areas and to do so via specific stories told in terms of the Kolb Model.…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Words: 3177 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56691092

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People should strive to comprehend fundamental personality attributes and the manner in which they influence a person's behavior (Griffin 2007).Most perspectives to personality presuppose that some traits are more fundamental compared to others. This concept underlie that a small number of basic personality traits determine other, more superficial traits. With respect to the biological approach to personality, personality traits are determined by human genetic inheritance, behavioral tendencies that develop from evolutionary history and human conduct that generate through intricate biological…… [Read More]

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Personality Psychological Perspectives in Psychology Individual and

Words: 515 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20974375


Psychological Perspectives in Psychology: individual and social environment influences

In the field of psychology, the study of personality is essential, allowing the psychologist to understand the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of the individual. Understanding personality is significant to psychological studies because it is through this aspect that one determines the kind of individual the person is, what are the likely actions and behavior that s/he will adapt to when confronted in a particular situation or reality. However, the psychology of personality is not unidimensional: personality can be explained in psychology through various facets or perspectives. These perspectives offer different explanations about the nature and dynamic of personality, yet, each perspective provides insightful and additional information, increasing knowledge of humanity about individual personalities.

These perspectives are divided into four main traditions in psychology: the psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanistic, and cognitive perspectives to understanding personality. In the psychoanalytic perspective, personality is primarily…… [Read More]

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Group Counseling Using Client-Centered Therapy

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42657

What he mentions that other authors did not mention -- and this paper views as imperative -- is for the facilitator to understand the salient goal he must have in mind is not abstinence but simply to encourage the client to return for the next appointment. According to the literature, the trend in group therapy leans towards client-centered, empathy-infused, open-minded and respectful treatment of clients, which is diametrically opposed to the stuffy, arrogant tactics of the past (i.e., "doctor knows best" didactical approach).

Adlerian Group Therapy

Adlerian group counseling "lends itself to brief interventions and short-term formats," according to author Gerald Corey. What the author means by that is, using Adlerian strategies (explaining to the client that there are time limitations) can help "motivate both client and therapist to stay focused on desired outcomes" and to be super efficient in dealing with the present and the future but not the…… [Read More]

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Memory Intelligence My First Memory the

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34345674

A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. It is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.

Intelligence Test

For this assignment, I completed the test found at, after…… [Read More]

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Social Work Supervision of Clinical

Words: 5496 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54097164

By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).

Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…… [Read More]

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Describing Gender and Sex

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62746527

Sex and Gender

There are a variety of different perspectives on sex and gender. The four main theoretical perspectives are biological, evolutionary, social constructionist, and psychodynamic perspectives. None of these theoretical perspectives completely explains sex or gender, nor do they claim that they do. Instead, the perspectives inform the idea of the social construct of gender as it relates to the biological sex of a person. Each perspective looks at how biological, social, and cultural factors impact how a person views both sex and gender, and they focus on this from different levels of analysis. It is important to keep in mind that, while there may be some conflicts between the theories, they may be better understood when viewed together. Furthermore, most analysis of sex and gender takes a two-gender (masculine and feminine) and two-sex (male and female) approach to the gender question, even when acknowledging that there is; at…… [Read More]

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Depression Not Just a Bad Mood Mdd

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90318784

Depression: Not just a Bad Mood

MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood

The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.

Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]

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Psychological Perspectives - Evolutionary Psychology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38420394

Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…… [Read More]

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Andrea M Is a 21-Year-Old Female in

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 99310236

Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…… [Read More]

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Ethnography Studies Od Organizations

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12609251

Organizational Psychology

Qualitative research is conducted according to several different philosophical orientations, one of which is phenomenology. The science of phenomenology studies the consciousness of individuals according to a first-person point-of-view. Experience is structured by meaning and intentionality toward something or some object, and phenology is the effort to describe the meanings of the lived experiences of individuals. That is to say that, the first person accounts of individuals constitute meaningful, authentic qualitative data. Ethnography is a form of qualitative research in which the investigator becomes immersed in the context in which the inquiry is taking place (Rouleau, et al., 2014).

An ethnographic researcher essentially indwells in order to obtain thick, rich data about individuals in a population and about the environment in which they live their lives (Rouleau, et al., 2014). The field of ethnology requires the researcher to be at once acutely tuned-in to the individuals in the…… [Read More]

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI Is a Psychometric

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 76054349

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a psychometric personality assessment questionnaire that measures individual preferences with regards to decision making and worldviews. The MBTI is grounded in the psychodynamic approach exemplified through Carl Jungs theoretical interpretations of personality. The following will discuss the development of the MBTI in relation to its theoretical background, as well as details associated with the psychometric tool, including its purpose, uselfulness, reliability, validity, benefits, and limitations.

The MBTI consists of four dimensions, including the EI (extroversion-introversion index), the SN (sensation-intuition index), the TF (thinking-feeling index), and JP (judging-perceiving index). The first three dimensions of the MBTI are based in the personality types developed through Jung's theory. The EI index relates to preferences of individuals to obtain information in a direct way from other people, which indicates the trait of extroversion. On the other hand, individuals may obtain information through actions such as personal reflection or reading,…… [Read More]

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Crisis Intervention Practice Session When

Words: 2284 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43356899

Let's just talk here at the beginning about doing things differently. How about this -- are you right-handed?

Gina: No, I'm left-handed, why?

Therapist: What if I asked you to start brushing your teeth with your right hand. Tonight, after your dinner, use your right hand.

Gina: Okay but that will seem weird and I might not be very good.

Therapist: Once you do it for a while, how would that seem to you? For example, your next appointment is in a week, that will give you 7 days to practice. How would that work for you?

Gina: I believe it would begin to seem fairly routine if I did it long enough.

Therapist: And seeing how this change could be possible could lead to other changes in your life. Are you ready here today to open the door to changes?

Gina: And what is your part in this? How…… [Read More]

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Patho-Physiological Condition of Schizophrenia Searching

Words: 2888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41269278

Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."

The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).

The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…… [Read More]

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Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a

Words: 7348 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2865324

Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused

This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.

The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children - a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.

This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4…… [Read More]

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Treating Adolescents With Substance Abuse Disorders

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69501873

Adolescent Substance Abuse

Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…… [Read More]

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Postpartum Depression or Postnatal Depression Is a

Words: 2319 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88347291

Postpartum depression or postnatal depression is a term that describes the occurrence of moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth (although sometimes men are given this diagnosis when severe depression occurs after the birth of a child). This depression may occur soon after delivery and may linger up to a year or longer. In the majority of recognized cases the depression occurs within the first three months following the delivery of the child. The DSM-IV does not recognize postpartum depression as a distinct disorder. People who receive a diagnosis of postpartum depression must first meet the standard diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and then they must satisfy the additional specifier criteria for the postpartum onset (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). This criterion states that the onset of the major depressive episode must occur within four weeks after delivery.

Postpartum depression then should be…… [Read More]

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Child Psychology Mander G May 2001 Fatherhood

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5655469

Child Psychology

Mander, G. (May 2001). "Fatherhood Today: variations on a theme." Psychodynamic Counselling, Vol. 7, Issue 2.

This journal article centers on the increasing role that fathers play in parenting, especially among single parents. Mander discusses how parenting among fathers has become more an exception than the norm, and they were relegated to "minimal" roles that downplay their role as a parent, such as simply being "mere sperm donors." The article recommends that laws should be studied in order to improve the state of single parenting in society, for it is possible for children to experience having a 'complete family' even though their parents are separated. This, for the author, is a big step towards improving marriage and family laws, resulting to better child development in the process.

Seaman, P. And H. Sweeting. (June 2004). "Assisting young people's access to social capital in contemporary families: a qualitative study." Journal…… [Read More]

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Anorexia Nervosa An a Serious

Words: 4303 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66382332

nurture. This issue has been employed in questioning the role of genetics as well as environment in the analysis of behavior. Several researchers especially geneticists have attempted to interpret the behavior of a person on the basis of natural phenomena. The work of Strober et al. (1985,p.239) indicated that since the 19th century to date, researchers who are studying anorexia nervosa have explore several multiple causes of the illness. Through this work, Strober et al. (1985) that their scientific experiment would be crucial in suggesting that the main cause of anorexia nervosa is genetic disposition. Their study involved the directly interviewing of first degree as well as second degree relatives of several probands on various diagnoses of eating disorders as well as other forms of questions that relates to specific behaviors (p.239). The researchers chose to ask all of the relatives on issues pertaining eating habits, excessive rituals, ideal shape…… [Read More]

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Media Exposure on Adolescent Body

Words: 1032 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 63164060

Moreover, adolescence and young adulthood are periods of both increased anxiety about appearance and social acceptance as well as of greater dependence on the opinions and perceptions of others (Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Lee, 2004). That would seem to suggest that exposure to media images associated with beauty would have the greatest influence on the individual. This proposal is designed to test the relationship between exposure to images and other visual representations associated with physical beauty and the development of self-perception in the individual.


It is hypothesized that self-perception among adolescents and young adults with respect to relative physical attractiveness will vary directly in proportion to their degree of interest in and exposure to media images of beauty. The independent variable will be the exposure of subjects to various forms of media associated with a high degree of emphasis on physical attractiveness. The dependent variable will be the measure of…… [Read More]

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Menace II Society Human Behavior

Words: 3010 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6385588

The question that Caine struggles with is whether life has any real meaning, taking into account the ugly, cruel, but still unimaginably changeable circumstances under which many people are able to live -- "in particular, young black men caught in a web of presumption and prejudice about their alleged natures and what they might be capable of -- becomes the fundamental question" (Flory 2008) for Caine and for the entire film.

environmental perspective. Less than thirty minutes into the Menace II Society, Caine's grandfather asks him if he even cares if he lives or dies. This question is a philosophical topic, as suggested by Camus, but it is also a psychological question because what happens when a person becomes ambivalent about their life? And what drives them to become so? There is some suggestion that focusing on race by delineating how a presumed guilt of African-Americans and other related conditions…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Psychology Essay

Words: 2882 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array

This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior

Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology of Planning
I. Introduction

II. Body
A. Scenario
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
III. Conclusion
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay

Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…… [Read More]

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Psycho Dynamic and Cultural Leadership Approaches

Words: 1280 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35721494

Leadership Approaches

Psychodynamic Approach Survey

This is approach to leadership is based on personality study and change by the leader and those who are under leadership. According to Psychodynamic Approach Survey, a leader is a person who is supposed to learn from analyzing and realizing the personality and reaction of the people who are being led so that he or she can know how best to handle them. A leader who has borrowed from the Psychodynamic Approach Survey is not worried of how the followers perceive him and understand him. He is not interested in how to change his personality so that he or she can appeal to the people. Nonetheless, such a leader is focused on observing the behaviors and the personalities of the followers, making sure that he captures the way they react, think, interact, and do everything, as a basis for influencing them to act in a…… [Read More]

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Psychology - History of Psychology

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59949647

Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.

The Cognitive Perspective:

The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.

According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud to the Science

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65632482

In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).

Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…… [Read More]

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder From Different Perspecitves

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29437575

Philosophical Origins of Clinical Psychology - Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, and Family Systems in Relation to Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A psychodynamic approach to Generalized Anxiety Disorder takes into account childhood trauma and other fundamental experiences that shape dysfunctional responses to stressors. The underlying philosophy is based on Fruedian theory, illuminating the structure of the ego and how it develops in early childhood. Inadequate or dysfunctional parent-child interactions, such as overprotective parenting, can prevent the healthy development of ego defense mechanisms that can protect the individual from stress and provide the means to cope and overcome ("Anxiety Disorders," n.d.).

Cognitive-behavioral perspectives emphasize dysfunctional thought patterns that underlie anxiety. Those patterns might include maladaptive beliefs or assumptions about the self or the world ("Anxiety Disorders," n.d.). Those thought patterns may or may not have their roots in traumatic experiences, but the philosophy of cognitive-behavioral therapy is on pragmatic change. A cognitive-behavioral philosophy rests…… [Read More]