Social Disorganization Essays (Examples)

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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]

References

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Social Dimensions of Crime

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80292698

Social Class And Crime

For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.

Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.

In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…… [Read More]

References:

Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.

Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.

Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.

Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.
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Social Dimensions of Crime the

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27384933

I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.

I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…… [Read More]

References

Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921

Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
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Social Theories of Crime Social

Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75019591

ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.

Conclusions

Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…… [Read More]

References

Kurbin (nd). "Sociological Theories of Criminal Behavior II."

Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73 -- 98.
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Social Isolation and Function of

Words: 1543 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92032384

It is also referred to as luminal stimulus or limen. However the irritability of the population in our case is different, they will react to the slightest provocation of their egos. The isolation formats them to such a sensitive being that they react with very minimum provocation.

(b).

Effectiveness of management of excessive stimulus input- the population in study more often will not know the difference between the general pathogenic influences and the and adverse trauma, they may end up treating the two in similar manner since they are not in a position to manage or put under effective control the stimulus they react to nor the stimuli they send out. This is due to isolation which makes then non-interactive for a long time hence cannot use exposure to others to learn the trick.

Generally isolation due to disruption of the cultural system imposed on a population by poverty can…… [Read More]

Reference

Bruce et.al, (2000). Neighborhood Poverty and the Social Isolation of Inner-City African

American Families. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-66274514.html

Encyclopedia.com (2005). Ego Functions.  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435300417.html 

Henderson David, (2010). Hispanic Poverty and Social Isolation Effects on Low-Income People.
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Social Control Integration of Knowledge of the

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92481927

Social Control

Integration of Knowledge of the Essay 'The City' with the Four Neighborhoods Described in 'There Goes the Neighborhood'

The objective of this study is to integrate the knowledge of the essay entitled "The City" with the four neighborhoods described in "There Goes the Neighborhood." This work will develop an analysis of how and why the features of the area chosen produce or lead to crime and disorder. This work will choose two of the four areas or neighborhoods described and summarize the main features including income, location, population, and race/ethnic composition and will discuss the salient factors in the location that lead to stability and the salient factors that produce change or instability. This work will identify the primary threats perceived or identified by the residents and how these threats are related to ideas such as invasion, succession, or the cycle of conflict, competition, accommodation, and assimilation. This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carr, PJ (2003) The New Parochialism: The Implications of the Beltway Case for Arguments Concerning Informal Social Control. AJS Vol. 108. No. 6 May 2003. Pp. 1249-1291.

Pattillo, ME (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces. Vol. 76 No. 3 Mar 1998. Pp.747-774.

Sampson, RJ and Wilson, WJ (1995) Toward Unified Theory of Race, Crime and Urban Inequality. Crime and Inequality. Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. 1995. University Press.
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Social Structure That Help to

Words: 363 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74123733

This is also known as structural strain which refers to "the process by which inadequate regulation at the societal level filters down" to how a person perceives his/her own personal needs and desires. In other words, this is a type of friction which disrupts social regulation and creates criminal activity (2006, Internet).

The third theory concerns how the collapse or failure of certain societal/cultural processes creates individuals with deviant personalities that do not conform nor adhere to accepted cultural norms. Exactly how this process works is quite complex, but much research conducted over the last twenty years or so has demonstrated that social/cultural deviance can lead to criminal activity in the form of gangs, organized crime and even serial killers.

Overall, these three theories are very closely linked to one another and as separate theories, one does not dominate the other, meaning that one theory alone is not enough to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

(2006). Social Disorganization Theories of Crime. Internet. Accessed September 15, 2009 from http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory10.htm.
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Social Bonding Theory

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14253591

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory

The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
 

Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory

Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.

The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]

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How Restorative Justice Can Mediate Anti-Social Behaviors

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11314831

Social Disorganization Theory

There are myriad examples in the literature of how the social disorganization theory links street crimes with ecological themes in certain tough neighborhoods. The sociological aspect of the theory -- wretched socioeconomic conditions and mean, gang-dominated streets offer more of an accounting for crime or delinquency than the individuals who commit crimes -- has been tested and referenced as valid by numerous scholars and researchers. The theory seems to neatly apply in certain urban environments, which perhaps explains why neighbors in collaboration with law enforcement have implemented Neighborhood atch and Community Oriented Policing programs to control crime. But is strengthening the social networks in a crime-infested neighborhood really the one true answer to bringing down the crime rate? Do these programs, which do have a positive effect, really reach down into the core of the social problem? hile they may protect innocent residents in some instances and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bearden, T. (2012). Harsh Punishment for Misbehavior in Texas Schools. Public Broadcast

Service. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from  http://www.pbs.org .

Harris, F. (2010). Critical Engagement with the Deficit Construction of Maori children as

Learners in the Education System. In Breaking the Mold of School Instructions and Organization: Innovative and Successful Practices for the Twenty-First Century, A.
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Organized Crime as a Social Institution

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42841322

Social Institution and Organized Crime

Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…… [Read More]

References

Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.

Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from  http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/ 

Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
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Social Movements Social Reformers Recognized

Words: 2359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43531425

King called upon Black churches to challenge the status quo and to change the pervasively oppressive social order. acism, economic and labor exploitation and war were named by King as the three greatest evils of American society and they needed to be fully eradicated to resolve social disparity.

King's idea of integration was complex; he struggled to eliminate or reduce poverty by linking political power, wealth, and poverty...."King's unfinished search for more radical reforms in America may have been the central reason he was killed."..."Martin Luther King and Malcolm X were both assassinated," Allen (1983: 322) writes, "at precisely the point at which they began working actively and consciously against the racism and exploitation generated by the American capitalist system..." (Jalata, 2003, p. 67)

The value of understanding the issue of class had been one that was a significant aspect of social reform research, since the post war period. One…… [Read More]

References

Curran, L. (2003). The Culture of Race, Class, and Poverty: The Emergence of a Cultural Discourse in Early Cold War Social Work. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 30(3), 15.

Hon, L.C. (1997). To Redeem the Soul of America: Public Relations and the Civil Rights Movement. Journal of Public Relations Research, 9(3), 163-212.

Howe, B., & Pidwell, R. (2002). Poverty Research and Social Policy. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 113.

Jalata, a. (2003). Comparing the African-American and Oromo Movements in the Global Context. Social Justice, 30(1), 67.
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Mental Health and Social Inequalities

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39478805

Inequalities in Mental Health

Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)

The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.

Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
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Psycho-Social Dynamics of Alcoholic Addiction Family

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86530127

Psyco-Social Dynamics of Alcoholic Addiction Family

Alcoholism is a disease.

It affects the entire family and creates an environment of dysfunction and disorganization.

ithin the family, the social and psychological ramifications of alcoholism affect the alcoholic, his or her spouse, and the children.

Children Supporting Paragraph

Children must cope with the effects of an alcoholic on the family (disorganization).

There are five roles which serve as coping mechanisms.

The mascot, placater, acting out child, lost child, responsible child.

Child Roles Supporting Paragraph

Roles either make things better or worse.

The responsible child excels

The mascot and placater child intermediate.

The former does so from foolery, the second from caring.

The lost child disassociates.

The acting out child gets in trouble.

Spouse Supporting Paragraph

A. Spouses are more of a determinant of an alcoholic's behavior than children.

B. Spouses have three perspectives on actions of the alcoholic.

1. They like alcoholism…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Devine, Cindy and Valerie Braithwaite. "The Survival Roles of Children and Alcoholics: Their Measurement and Validity." Addiction 88.1: 69-78. 1993. Print.

Glover, Geraldine. "The Hero Child in the Alcoholic Home: Recommendations for Counselors." School Counselor 41: 185-191. 1994. Print.

Janzen, Curtis. "Family Treatment for Alcoholism: A Review." Social Work 23.2: 135-144. 1978. Print.

Johnson, Patrick. "Dimensions of Functioning in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Families." Journal of Mental Counseling 23 (2001): 127-136
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Gang Prevention Program Gangs Contain

Words: 5590 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76787344



George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.

Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs

Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009

from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx

ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.

Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
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Teens Get Involved in Gangs

Words: 1776 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 238085

al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).

The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…… [Read More]

References

Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.

Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.

National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
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Issues in Criminal Justice System

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84445229

Criminal Justice System

Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement

Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).

Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…… [Read More]

References

Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.

Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.

Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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Race Juvenile Family Community and Racial Trends

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 118348

ace Juvenile

Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice

The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.

ace,…… [Read More]

References

Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,

Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,

Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),

Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
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Strategies and Models for Reducing Juvenile Gangs in the Society

Words: 2619 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35023990

Career Development Program Juveniles in Gangs

The intervention plan provides various professional and organizational insights on the program and facilitation service. The program recognizes the relevance of initiating capacity, professionalism and skills of the persons involved while contributing towards the achievement of the strategic priorities and goals. The programs provide consultative information and services for the units of planning, team development and implementation of change processes (Bradshaw, et al., 2013). The system coordinates training in the correctional units. The medium-term goals of the project include providing advice and support for the application and development of staff and organizational development initiatives. The suite of program components will build on professional capabilities, leadership and management skills, organizational knowledge and team performance and development.

Literature eview

Various authors have literature on correctional systems. The practical approaches in gang situations include the need to address service delivery problems. The programs involve different stakeholders and…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous, (2004). Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. Adolescence, vol. 39, (153): 187

Bradshaw, C. P. et al., (2013). Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity. J Youth Adolescence. Vol. 42:220-234

Holder, Jr., E. H., Robinson, L. O. & Slowikowski, J. (2010). Best Practices to Address community Gang Problems: OJJDP's Comprehensive Gang Model. National Gang Center

Koffman, S., et al., (2009). The impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency. Children & Schools, vol. 31(4):239-244
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from  http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Family Deliquency and Crime Nowadays

Words: 1521 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67975477

"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)

eference:

Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm

Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.

Social Disorganization at the micro level:

Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"

Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html

Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto

http://eqi.org/amiller.htm

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html

Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm

Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html

Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html

Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm… [Read More]

Reference:

Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure"  http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika 's%20paper.htm

Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.

Social Disorganization at the micro level:

Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]

References

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Sociology One Page Race Distinguish Humans Biologically

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35878609

Sociology: (One page) Race distinguish humans biologically. 1) hy a persistent social issue? 2) hy misconceptions race persist, people dispel misconceptions? On Sociology: (One page) 1) How policy makers concepts half-full half-empty argue social change? 2) Do effective strategy? hy ?.

In spite of the fact that society has experienced great social progress in the recent decades, race continues to be an important problem. It would be absurd for someone to consider that the connection between race and biology means that individuals belonging to particular races are superior when compared to individuals belonging to other racial groups. In contrast, racism is actually a problem and it is presently the reason for numerous conflicts. In spite of the fact that race is not an important biological concept, race is a social category and it practically determines the degree to which some individuals are more privileged than others.

The concept of race…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Merton, Robert K. And Nisbet, Robert A. eds.,Contemporary Social Problems: An Introduction to the Sociology of Deviant Behavior and Social Disorganization (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961)
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Philadelphia Crime in the City of Philadelphia

Words: 1317 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43362826

Philadelphia

Crime in the City of Philadelphia

The crime rate in Philadelphia has been a major issue for many years. Philadelphia is known as one of the cities with a highest crime rate in America. Crime is any act committed that breaks the laws, breaking rules that were established by a state or federal authority. New York, Chicago and Los Angeles are cities that are bigger than Philadelphia, with much larger populations, however they have lower crime rates compared to Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Police Department have made many different attempts and tried several strategies in an effort to reduce crime rate in this city. In 2002 the Police Department launched Operation Safe Streets, where police officers were placed on all the known drug infested streets in attempt decrease crime rates (Lawton, Taylor & Luongo, 2005). In this paper I will discuss some of the issues associated with the crime rate…… [Read More]

References

Barlas, F. & Farrie, D. (2006). Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety: Social Disorganization and Racial Differences in the Impact of Neighborhood Characteristics. American Sociological Association.

Census (2010). Philadelphia population by race and ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.clrsearch.com/Philadelphia_Demographics/MS/Population-by-Race-and-Ethnicity

Lawton, B.A., Taylor, R.B. & Luongo, A.J. (2005). Police Officers on Drug Corner in Philadelphia, Drug, Crime and Violent Crime: Intended, Diffusion, and Displacement Impacts. Justice Quarterly. 22 (4) 427-451

Miller, L.L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law and Society Review. 44 (3/4) 805-842
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Punishment Program

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22230280

Punishment Program

This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…… [Read More]

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Immigrant Experience and Its Psychological Toll Information

Words: 3416 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91176917

Immigrant Experience

And Its Psychological oll

Information Competency & Library Use

San Francisco, CA

he theoretical framework centers of the immigrant experience and how it changes the individual while navigating his or her new society. he topic statement seeks to explore these phenomena by focusing on the psychological experience and its relationship to violence and economics. he idea that the action of immigrating is profoundly disruptive on ideas of self-worth, identity and economic status are explored.

I address the various experiences of dislocation arising from migration. Distinctions are made between experiences of voluntary immigrants and refugees and asylum seekers and between legal and undocumented immigrants in their risk for trauma exposure and differential impacts of trauma in the context of immigration. Refugee status as inherently founded in trauma is analyzed, with a brief description of torture survivors among refugees. he issue of trafficked migrants is also discussed. What is core…… [Read More]

This dissertation is remarkable as it uses a post-traumatic stress framework to explore the acculturative experiences and offers means of reducing the challenges of the experience. Psychological health requisites for immigrants are compounded by pre-existing needs along with the pressure of residing in a new society. This work explores acculturative stress (AS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in immigrants by performing a data analysis of the 2002 to 2003 National Latino-American and Asian-American Study. The key acculturative stressors were influenced family factors, challenges interacting with their new society as a result of language problems and social standing. In addition, the dissertation reports that Hispanics suffer from greater acculturative stress than Asians when gender, age, ethnicity, educational attainment and time in the U.S. are accounted for statistically.

Learning Experience

This course has been intellectually stimulating and thought provoking. I have gained significant insight into the field of research which will serve me well in my future endeavors. This course is unlike my other graduate studies as it forces one to take ideas and to ground them in evidence and scholarly work. I had completed some annotations before but not from online databases in this depth. In conducting the research, I found that I gathered much more material than was needed which helped expand my knowledge base even if I did not use the material in my work. This process of editing and deciding what to include helped me to apply critical inquiry and commit to my chosen research topic. Without a doubt, I feel much more confident in conducting scholarly research and formulating my ideas. A second value skill learned from this course is that I feel that I have the ability to conduct online research regardless of the subject matter. In addition, I have developed familiarity with APA formatting.
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Criminology the Beginnings of Criminology

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26108099



VI. DURKHEIM'S ANOMIE

Another theory in criminology is known as 'Durkheim's Anomie' which was conceived by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who first introduced the anomie in the work entitled: "The Division of Labor in Society" in which the anomie was utilized in provides a description of a "condition of deregulation that was occurring in society." (Criminological Theory, 2001) This anomie was used to describe how that the mores' of behavior in society was unclear and due to this breakdown in a code of proper social behavior resulting was the 'anomie' or the failure to know what to expect between individuals. It was posited by Durkheim that: "...societies evolved form a simple, nonspecialized form, called 'mechanical' toward a highly complex, specialized form, called 'organic. In the former society people behave and think alike and more or less perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. When societies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Demelo, Diane (2008) Criminological Theory. Online available at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/Diane_Demelo/diane.pdf 

Perkins, Douglas D.; Hughey, Joseph and Speer, Paul W. (2002) Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Practice. Journal of the Community Development Society. Vol. 33 No. 1. Online available at http://www.people.vanderbilt.edu/~douglas.d.perkins/JCDS.02.pdf

Cowling Mark (2006) Postmodern Policies? The Erratic Interventions of Constitutive Criminology. Internet Journal of Criminology. 2006. Online available at  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Cowling%20-%20Postmodern%20Policies.pdf 

Aim of Criminology
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Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91314490

Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas

Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)

Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.

Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966

Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.

Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
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Violent Juvenile Offenders the Innocent

Words: 2799 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69323110

Though these factors can be an influence on the juvenile's choice to commit a crime, the ultimate cause of the crime was the juvenile's own cost-benefit analysis, according to this model.

A practical exploration of this model can be done using Jacob Ind, one of the five Colorado teenagers sentenced to life in prison without parole in Frontline's documentary, "Kids Who Get Life" (Bikel 2007). Ind was convicted of killing his mother and stepfather after years of sexual abuse. Ind defended himself saying that he did not understand the permanency of murder and just wanted the abuse to end (Bikel 2007). While other models may suggest that the cause of Ind's violent offense was his abuse and his misunderstanding of the consequences of murder, ational Choice Theory would contend that the abuse and misunderstandings influenced his behavior, although they did not cause it. What caused his behavior, the theory would…… [Read More]

References

Boehnke, Klaus and Dagmar Bergs-Winkels. (2002). Juvenile Delinquency Under Conditions of Rapid Social Change. Sociological Forum. 17 (1), 57-79.

Bikel, Ofra. (2007). When Kids Get Life. [Frontline]. Boston: Washington

Educational Foundation.

Hemer, Karen. (1997). Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Trends in Crime

Words: 776 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15585292

Crime ates by egions

The FBI document the crimes that are experienced across the U.S.A. By recording and tabulating the crimes bot only by the number of people arrested but more significantly by the number of arrests that are made and the type of crime that prompted the arrest. This is a more accurate procedure since it helps in cases of multiple arrests of the same person within a year that may also be prompted by different crimes each time of subsequent arrest.

The paper is predominantly on the crime rates within four states; Northeast, Midwest, South and West within the year 2009 according to the data found in the FBI official website. An analysis of the crime rates and the reasons behind the variance in crime rates is also of essence here.

In 2009, Northeast experienced 1,624,285 crimes that were charged in the courts and this represented 3,625.2 crime…… [Read More]

References

Federal Bureau of Investigation, (2010). Number and Rate of Arrests by Region, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from  http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_30.html 

Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, (2010). Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews Volume 5, Chapter 4: Social Disorganization Theory. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from  http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/youthandthelaw/roots/volume5/chapter04_social_disorganization.aspx
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Dark Figure of Crime Is a Term

Words: 2252 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68643143

Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.

The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal ureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.

There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of crime: Incivility and the production of a social problem. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.

Lilly, R.J., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: context and consequences
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Criminal System the Juvenile Criminal System This

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18446102

Criminal System

The Juvenile Criminal System

This paper will seek to address two questions:

How is the juvenile justice system different from the adult system? Explain your response.

Response:

adek (2011) states that the two systems share both commonalities and differences. He presents the juvenile justice system as a rehabilitation center instead of a punishment center for juveniles. However, he also states that punishment is still a central feature of this system, though it is a last resort. Some similarities include "the police, judiciary, and corrections have discretion relative to decision making in both systems."

adek also states that "those adults and juveniles that admit guilt there is a system of procedural safeguards to protect their rights."

Furthermore, he argues that the other commonalities include age group separation, plea bargaining, as well as processes of hearings an appeals.

When adults are tried for crimes, it is clear that there is…… [Read More]

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from  http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com/11/the-juvenile-justice-system-and-the-adult-justice-system/ 

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from
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Juvenile Delinquency Is One of the Most

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27379594

Juvenile delinquency is one of the most serious social concerns facing the American society today. In 2010, for instance, juvenile offenders accounted for approximately 8% of all reported homicides. For a society that still considers itself conservative, this figure is relatively high. It is these statistics that spur the researcher's interest in investigating the reasons why juveniles engage in crime, particularly juvenile crime. Past studies have shown that most juvenile crimes are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m., the period when a child has left school and is primarily under the care of the parent. The current study thus focuses on showing, using the social control and social disorganization theories of crime, that the lack of social support in the home environment…… [Read More]

References

Burfeind, J.W. & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Crime Solutions. (n.d.). Juveniles. Crime Solutions. Retrieved 5 February 2015 from http://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=5

Heide, K.M. (1999). Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sandra, W. (2007). Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill.
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Drug Use in Teens

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22600247

Drug Use in Adolescents

The author of this report has been charged with writing a brief scholarly report with a few key components. The author of this report has been asked to select a topic of interest. That selected topic shall be substance and drug abuse in adolescents. As part of this scholarly report, there will be three major components. The first will be a description of the area of interest and why the author of this report is interested in it. Second, there will be a brief literature review with scholarly sources that cover that same topic. Finally, there will be a reflection and reaction to the literature review including whether there was agreement, how the author of this report perceives the involved paradigm(s) and so forth. While many kids avoid the pitfalls and negative outcomes of drug use and abuse, many fall prey sometimes or many times and…… [Read More]

References

Jaynes, S. (2014). Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse

Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators. Journal Of At-Risk

Issues, 18(1), 35-40.

Lanza, H.I., Grella, C.E., & Chung, P.J. (2014). Does Adolescent Weight Status
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Cultural Impact on Politics Political

Words: 5093 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96410547

4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.

The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…… [Read More]

References

Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.

Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.

Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.

El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
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Controversies in Criminal Justice

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83892603

Pelican Bay State Prison: War Zone

How does the video you selected support a social structure theory?

One social structure theory relates and highlights all the happenings in this video. Social disorganization theory appears to dominate the entire movie. This concept represents social change, lack of social agreement, and social conflict as the main causes of criminal activity and deviance; it is carefully associated with the environmental theory of criminology. Poverty is regarded to be the minimum stage or point in our social society. On the poverty stage, there are high levels of lack of employment, drug use and addiction, criminal activity and people without abilities to discover efficient and permanent employment. It does not imply that this does not exist in the higher stages of our society: they exist although the magnitudes are significantly lower. Absence of education is attributed to learners who fail to be successful in the…… [Read More]

References

Decker, S.H., Alarid, L.F., & Katz, C.M. (2013). Controversies in criminal justice: Contemporary readings. Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co.

Stanley, E.A., & Smith, N. (2011). Captive genders: Trans embodiment and the prison industrial complex. Oakland, CA: AK Press.

Walsh, A., & Hemmens, C. (2011). Introduction to criminology: A text/reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE
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Death Penalty as a Deterrent for Murder

Words: 6058 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25585782

Abstract

This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.

Introduction

While it may seem ironic that the death…… [Read More]

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Criminology Is Generally the Study

Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83191163



The victims of crimes are very important in the operation of the criminal justice system; this is because they are the ones who can lead the police to the offender. However, after the victim reports incidents to the police, provide vital information for the investigation and cooperate with the persecution of the offender and appearing in court when required, the criminal serves his time and the victim goes on with his life. Most may question the justice in this. According to the Victims of Crime Act 1994, the victims of crime are given better treatment during proceedings and are more informed and involved. Victims are treated with sympathy in a constructive and reassuring manner, and the victim (if the crime is violent) should be protected at all times. This may seem that the victim is well taken care of, and that the victim is in no way neglected, however it…… [Read More]

References

Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: a social introduction. New York: Routledge.

Lanier, M.M, & Henry, S. (1998). Essential criminology. Bould Cohn, E.G., Farrington, D.P., & Wright, R.A. (1998). Evaluating criminology and criminal justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

er, CO: Westview Press.

Turner, M. (2008). Juvenile delinquency: causes and control, 2nd ed. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 39(3).
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Ethics the First Action to

Words: 407 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54325236

This theory states that crime emerges in the absence of control and shrinks in the presence of control. Corporations therefore can take many steps to encourage moral responsibility, by exercising control at certain points. If employees receive steady encouragement, this is the presence of control on behavior. At other times, the absence of control can be used to promote positive actions. The absence of punishment for whistle-blowing or consideration of moral elements of corporate decisions can promote such activities. hen these activities flourish, the corporation will be fulfilling the second action. Corporations must thus be cognizant of the ways in which they can use the presence of absence of control mechanisms to attain ethical goals and encourage moral responsibility. Fraud can occur when an employee acts in self-interest or what he or she perceives to be the interest of the corporation. However, the presence of anti-fraud controls and the absence…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cullen & Agnew (2002), adapted. Criminology Theory Summaries. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Retrieved July 16, 2009 from http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf
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Travis H's Theories Controlling Chaos

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44246122

There are five techniques of neutralization; denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of the condemners, and the appeal to higher loyalties" (David Matza, 1998, FSU).

These theories stress the need for strong social and personal control mechanisms to be instilled in young people early on in their lives, so that individuals have a strong super-ego to control their actions and thwart social influences that encourage a denial of personal responsibility and the reality of the victim's suffering. A good example of this is the DAE (Drug Abuse esistance Education) program run by law enforcement to encourage children not to use drugs. The law enforcement officials are supposed to present a positive image of the law to young people, and encourage youths to take responsibility for their actions and resist peer pressure to use drugs -- appealing to the 'higher loyalties' often absent amongst drug users, according…… [Read More]

References

David Matza. (1998, November 30). FSU. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/matza.htm

Gottfredson, Michael R. & Travis Hirschi. (2011). A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?id=2686

No Excuse for Peer Abuse. (2011). Anti-Bullying Programs. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at  http://antibullyingprograms.org/Programs.html 

Welch, Kelly. (1998, November 30). Two major theories of Travis Hirschi. FSU.
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Criminology Biological Sociological and Psychological

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52134365

This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).

Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).

Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…… [Read More]

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Racial Disparity in Incarceration Rates

Words: 1644 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96043365

incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. acial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.

The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of…… [Read More]

References

Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:

Wadsworth,

Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+. Retrieved November 14, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Knepper, P. (2000). Chapter 2 the Alchemy of Race and Crime Research. In The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice, Markowitz, M.W. & Jones-Brown, D.D. (Eds.) (pp. 15-27). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Low Ses Connected With Mental Health

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51555838

Low socio-economic status (SES) is linked with a number of mental health outcomes in both adults and children. For young people, low SES has been associated with higher rates of attempted suicide, higher levels of behavioral and emotional issues, higher levels of aggression, higher rates of specific behavioral and mental health concerns including anxiety, depression, and conduct disorders (APA, 2015a). egardless of the specific environmental conditions, "type of hardship," or type of mental illness evaluated, a study of 34,000 patient records revealed "the poorer one's socioeconomic conditions are, the higher one's risk is for mental disability and psychiatric hospitalization," (Hudson, 2005). While correlation does not signal causation, there are certainly reasons to consider low SES a major risk factor for mental illnesses of all types.

One of the proximate causes of some mental illnesses are environmental stressors like unemployment, housing uncertainty, and general material insecurity (Hudson, 2005). For adolescents and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (APA, 2015a). Children, youth, families, and socioeconomic status. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-cyf.aspx

American Psychological Association (APA, 2015b). Disability and socioeconomic status. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-disability.aspx

Hudson, C.G. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness: Tests of the Social Causation and Selection Hypotheses. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75(1).

McLaughlin, K.A. et al. (2012). Socioeconomic status and adolescent mental disorders. American Journal of Public Health 102(9): 1742-1750.
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The Causes and Effects of Gangs

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31989989

Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…… [Read More]

References

Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000622-Evaluation-of-the-Los-Angeles-Gang-Reduction-and-Youth-Development-Program-Year-4-Evaluation-Report.pdf

Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243474.pdf

"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online: http://family.jrank.org/pages/674/Gangs-Family-Gangs-Gang-Family.html

Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online: http://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/gangcolor/madness.htm
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Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20651499

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
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Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97360463

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]

References

Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
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Mcveigh R & Diaz M D

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17961293



When analyzing why certain communities view same-sex marriage as a more of a threat to their own particular community than others, McVeigh and Diaz examined voting records from 2000 to 2008, at the county-level wherein same-sex initiatives were on the ballot. McVeigh and Diaz note that social disorganization theory proposes that where there is less residential stability, there will be a disruption in social organization and this has led to a loosening of social constraints on social behavior. However, McVeigh and Diaz' data analysis takes the theory a step further through demonstrating that in communities wherein traditionalism is highly prevalent, the lack of community cohesion (as exhibited by residential instability, low rates of home ownership and high crime rates) actually increases the chance that the residents will see same-sex marriage as a threat to their individual values as well as to their community interests.

McVeigh and Diaz also uncovered that…… [Read More]

Pursuant to McVeigh and Diaz, the contentions that include a discussion of the importance of preserving traditional marriage are more apt to be followed in locales where traditional gender and family roles continue to prevail over more modern views of gender and family roles. These are the individuals whom believe that same-sex marriage lessens the sanctity and status of the institution of marriage. Accordingly, McVeigh and Diaz postulate that opposition to same-sex marriage will be strong in areas populated by citizens wherein a vast majority of them maintain a personal stake in preserving traditional gender roles and family structures. Furthermore, McVeigh and Diaz draw upon past research which reveals that personal ties and networks to homosexual individuals help to reduce prejudice toward homosexuals and based thereon, the authors theorize that in communities where traditionalism prevails, the population will therefore have less ties to the gay and lesbian identity. As a result of less network ties to the homosexual community, negative stereotypes predominate leading to homosexuality as being viewed as a threat to their own lifestyle and privileges.

When analyzing why certain communities view same-sex marriage as a more of a threat to their own particular community than others, McVeigh and Diaz examined voting records from 2000 to 2008, at the county-level wherein same-sex initiatives were on the ballot. McVeigh and Diaz note that social disorganization theory proposes that where there is less residential stability, there will be a disruption in social organization and this has led to a loosening of social constraints on social behavior. However, McVeigh and Diaz' data analysis takes the theory a step further through demonstrating that in communities wherein traditionalism is highly prevalent, the lack of community cohesion (as exhibited by residential instability, low rates of home ownership and high crime rates) actually increases the chance that the residents will see same-sex marriage as a threat to their individual values as well as to their community interests.

McVeigh and Diaz also uncovered that the opposition to same-sex marriage is strongest in areas which maintain traditional values and have less community cohesion than other geographic locales. Additionally, their research found that the opposition to same-sex marriage exists even in locations where there is relative economic prosperity as well as an educated populace. Despite uncovering several salient aspects of the opposition to same-sex marriage, McVeigh and Diaz propose further inquiry into both the micro and macro-level processes which effect community and individual sentiment toward same-sex marriage. Moreover, McVeigh and Diaz intend for their work to stimulate more research at both the micro as well as the macro levels in order to better understand why it is that while overall Americans are becoming more accepting of homosexuality, a majority of Americans still feel justified in denying marriage rights to same-sex couples.
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Victims and Criminal Justice Victimization Victims and

Words: 2878 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44031505

Victims and Criminal Justice

Victimization, Victims and Criminal Justice

Based on your understanding of routine activity theory, discuss (1) why or why not this theory can be used to guide our research on the victim-offender overlap and (2) what theory (or theories), beyond the routine activity theory, will be useful for advancing our understanding of the victim-offender overlap based on your assessment of what we do not know about the victim-offender overlap.

outine activity theory requires that there be thee conditions present at the same time and in the same space. As one author puts it "Crime is a complex phenomenon that occurs when an offender, a victim and a law intersect in time and space" (Andresen, 2006). Another interpretation is that it is the offender, a target (this does not have to be a person but has to be something that offers itself to the opportunity) and the absence…… [Read More]

References

Andresen, M.A. (2006). A Spatial analysis of crime in Vancouver, British Columbia: A synthesis of social disorganization and routine activity theory. The Canadian Geographer, 50(4), 487+.

Blondel, E.C. (2008). Victims' rights in an adversary system. Duke Law Journal, 58(2), 237+.

Bouchard, M., Wang, W., & Beauregard, E. (2012). Social capital, opportunity, and school- based victimization. Violence and Victims, 27(5), 656+.

Campbell, R. (2005). What really happened? A validation study of rape survivors' help-seeking experiences with the legal and medical systems. Violence and Victims, 20(1), 55+.
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Collective Efficacy Supportive Control Is

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13157623



Ignoring cultural values in collective efficacy relationships decreases informal social control (Warner, 2003). All cultures do not place the same emphasis on the same values. Without recognizing the cultural conventional values, children become resentful with other collective efficacy relationships often with feelings of discrimination. As a general rule, Hispanic families place a high dependency on family where older children play big roles in the rearing of younger children. It creates a different special kind of bond within these Hispanic families. If other cultural members of the collective efficacy relationship feel it is not the child's place to raise their siblings, the Hispanic youth often feel their values are being discriminated against and become resentful toward the other cultural members in their communities. This non-recognition of the cultural values causes strife among community members and leads children to delinquent acts and association with deviant peers by feeling their family is being…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Simons, R. e. (2005). Collehctive Efficacy, Authoritative Parenting, and Delinquency: A Longitudinal Tests of a Model Integrating Community and Family Level Processes. Criminology, 43(4), 989-1029.

Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73-98.
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Ecological Models of Crime

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9960090

Chicago School of Thought, Anomie and Strain Theories

Criminology: Chicago School, Anomie and Strain Theories

The Chicago School of criminology is a name for a conglomeration of different criminological theories that stress how the environment shapes crime-related behaviors. Chicago School theories are often said to be based on an 'ecological' models of crime. For example, theorist obert Park held "all cities would contain identifiable clusters, which he called natural areas, where the cluster had taken on a life or organic unity by itself," including ethnic and class-based enclaves (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 384). Park specifically commented upon trends in which saw commercial businesses invading traditionally residential areas of Chicago, causing the residents to care less about the quality of their neighborhoods, show less solicitousness to their fellow human beings, and thus precipitate more crime (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 385). Ernest W. Burgess later expanded upon the theory, dividing cities into…… [Read More]

References

Criminological theory: A text/reader. Sage. Retrieved from:

http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/29411_6.pdf

Robert Agnew's general strain theory. (2014). FSU. Retrieved from:

http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/agnew.htm
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Australian Criminal Justice System

Words: 1948 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38503776

Criminal Justice System

Australian Criminal Justice System

"When all is said and done, the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect"

Overview of the Criminal Justice System: Fair and Effective - Penal Populism

The Democracy at Work thesis proposes that politicians have been properly responsive to public concern about crime by putting into place the more robust responses to offending which people want. An alternative perspective is that politicians have been populist in advocating these tougher policies. "Penal populism"; a term equivalent to Bottoms's (1995) "populist punitiveness"; is defined here as a punishment policy developed primarily for its anticipated popularity. Penal policy is particularly susceptible to populism, because there is a great deal of public concern about crime, and low levels of public knowledge about sentencing practice, sentencing effectiveness, and sentencing equity. This combination of concern and lack of knowledge can present…… [Read More]

References

Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.

Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
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Community Response to Race and Criminal Justice

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4962339

Community esponse to ace and Criminal Justice

Community esponse

The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), in Decatur, GA was chosen for this assignment. The department is responsible for serving the state's youth offenders up until the age of twenty-one. The organization's mission as stated on their web page is: "Our Mission is to protect and serve the citizens of Georgia by holding young offenders accountable for their actions through the delivery of services and sanctions in appropriate settings and by supporting youth in their communities to become productive and law-abiding citizens" (http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml). Cathy Dravis, the Juvenile Program Manager was interviewed. Below is a summary.

When asked how they view the issue of the disproportionate amount of African-American males arrested for drug distribution vs. Caucasian and Hispanic males, the response was that the person's environment that they grew up in plays a large role in shaping their adult lives. Many…… [Read More]

References

DJJ - About Us. (n.d.). DJJ Internet Home. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml

Grunwald, H., Lockwood, B., Harris, P., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39(9), 1067-1079. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9518-5

Ryberg, J. (2011). Racial profiling and criminal justice. Journal Of Ethics, 15(1/2), 79-88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3

Western, B. (2010).Decriminalizing poverty. Nation, 291(26), 12-14.